Scope: Structural-based recognition of foreign molecules is essential for activation of dendritic cells (DCs) that play a key role in regulation of gut mucosal immunity. Orally ingested non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are ascribed many health-promoting properties, but currently we lack insight into the impact of structure and size for their capacity to affect immune responses.Methods and results: This study addresses the importance of chemical structure, size, origin and presence of contaminants for the capacity of both dietary and non-food NSP to modulate DC. Of 28 NSP products, β-glucans of microbial and plant origin and the galactomannan guar gum were found to modulate the DC cytokine pattern induced by the Toll-like receptor 4-ligand LPS giving rise to reduced IL-12p70 and increased IL-10 levels, whereas IL-6 production was unaffected. A large proportion of the tested NSP were able to down-regulate LPS-induced IL-12p70 production. The most potent NSP induced up-regulation of CD86 on DC independently of LPS stimulation. Cereal-based β-glucans showed less potency than β-glucans of microbial origin, but proper molecular weight composition and preparation may improve effectiveness.Conclusions: Collectively, this comparative study revealed that some plant-derived NSP besides those of microbial origin exert modulation of the DC phenotype, with the exact structure being important for the activity.
- Surface marker
- Immune modulation