Compact titanium dioxide waveguides with high nonlinearity at telecommunication wavelengths

Xiaowei Guan*, Hao Hu, Leif Katsuo Oxenløwe, Lars Hagedorn Frandsen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Dense integration of photonic integrated circuits demands waveguides simultaneously fulfilling requirements on compactness, low loss, high nonlinearity, and capabilities for mass production. In this work, titanium dioxide waveguides with a thick core of 380 nm exhibiting a compact mode size (0.43 mu m(2)) and a low loss (5.4 +/- 1 dB/cm) at telecommunication wavelengths around 1550 nm have been fabricated and measured. A microring resonator having a 50 mu m radius has been measured to have a loaded quality factor of 53500. Four-wave mixing experiments reveal a nonlinear parameter for the waveguides of 21-34 W-1 m(-1) corresponding to a nonlinear index around 2.3-3.6 x 10(-18) m(2)/W, which results in a wavelength conversion efficiency of -36.2 dB. These performances, together with the potentially simple dispersion engineering to the fabricated waveguides by the post processes, yield a strong promise for the titanium dioxide waveguides applied in photonic integrated circuits, especially for nonlinear implementations. (C) 2018 Optical Society of America
Original languageEnglish
JournalOptics Express
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)1055-1063
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Titanium and Alloys
  • Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits
  • Waveguides
  • Optical Devices and Systems
  • Chemical Products Generally
  • Inorganic Compounds
  • Four wave mixing
  • Integrated circuits
  • Optical resonators
  • Oxides
  • Photonic devices
  • Titanium
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Dense integration
  • Dispersion engineering
  • High nonlinearity
  • Loaded quality factor
  • Microring resonator
  • Non-linear parameters
  • Photonic integrated circuits
  • Telecommunication wavelengths
  • Photonic integration technology
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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