Clustering algorithms for Stokes space modulation format recognition

Ricard Boada, Robert Borkowski, Idelfonso Tafur Monroy

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Abstract

Stokes space modulation format recognition (Stokes MFR) is a blind method enabling digital coherent receivers to infer modulation format information directly from a received polarization-division-multiplexed signal. A crucial part of the Stokes MFR is a clustering algorithm, which largely influences the performance of the detection process, particularly at low signal-to-noise ratios. This paper reports on an extensive study of six different clustering algorithms: k-means, expectation maximization, density-based DBSCAN and OPTICS, spectral clustering and maximum likelihood clustering, used for discriminating between dual polarization: BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 8-QAM, and 16-QAM. We determine essential performance metrics for each clustering algorithm and modulation format under test: minimum required signal-to-noise ratio, detection accuracy and algorithm complexity.
Original languageEnglish
JournalOptics Express
Volume23
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)15521-15531
ISSN1094-4087
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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