There is a growing concern that the Earth's atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities which can lead to climate change. Policy measures to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are on the agenda of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the European Union (EU). Climate Change is an environmental problem and answers have to be sought among robust environmental policies that are often classified in market-based, command-and-control and voluntary instruments. Although there is evidence that many uncertainties surround the climate change phenomenon and the contribution of shipping, shipping is under severe political pressure. The paper presents an overview of the related uncertainties and environmental policies and focuses on emission standards and technology solutions. From a political point of view, it is easier to pass legislation that calls for technological and operational measures and may indeed have a high potential in reducing emissions.
|Journal||Environmental Engineering and Management Journal|
|Publication status||Published - 2011|
- Climate change policy
- Emission standards
- Environmental policy
- Market based instruments
- Shipping policy