Climate change, non-indigenous species and shipping: assessing the risk of species introduction to a high-Arctic archipelago

Chris Ware, Jorgen Berge, Jan H. Sundet, Jamie B. Kirkpatrick, Ashley D. M. Coutts, Anders Jelmert, Steffen M. Olsen, Oliver Floerl, Mary Wisz, Inger G. Alsos, Hugh MacIsaac (Editor)

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


AimAnticipated changes in the global ocean climate will affect the vulnerability of marine ecosystems to the negative effects of non-indigenous species (NIS). In the Arctic, there is a need to better characterize present and future marine biological introduction patterns and processes. We use a vector-based assessment to estimate changes in the vulnerability of a high-Arctic archipelago to marine NIS introduction and establishment.LocationGlobal, with a case study of Svalbard, Norway.MethodsWe base our assessment on the level of connectedness to global NIS pools through the regional shipping network and predicted changes in ocean climates. Environmental match of ports connected to Svalbard was evaluated under present and future environmental conditions (2050 and 2100 predicted under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario). Risk of NIS introduction was then estimated based on the potential for known NIS to be transported (in ballast water or as biofouling), environmental match, and a qualitative estimate of propagule pressure.ResultsWe show that Svalbard will become increasingly vulnerable to marine NIS introduction and establishment. Over the coming century, sea surface warming at high latitudes is estimated to increase the level of environmental match to nearly one-third of ports previously visited by vessels travelling to Svalbard in 2011 (n=136). The shipping network will then likely connect Svalbard to a much greater pool of known NIS, under conditions more favourable for their establishment. Research and fishing vessels were estimated to pose the highest risk of NIS introduction through biofouling, while ballast water discharge is estimated to pose an increased risk by the end of the century.Main conclusionsIn the absence of focused preventative management, the risk of NIS introduction and establishment in Svalbard, and the wider Arctic, will increase over coming decades, prompting a need to respond in policy and action.
Original languageEnglish
JournalDiversity and Distributions
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)10-19
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Arctic
  • Biological invasions
  • Climate change
  • Climate matching
  • Shipping network
  • Vector-based analysis
  • archipelago
  • ballast water
  • biofouling
  • climate change
  • environmental conditions
  • fishing
  • global ocean
  • introduced species
  • sea surface
  • shipping
  • vulnerability
  • Nis
  • Norway
  • Serbia
  • Svalbard
  • Svalbard and Jan Mayen
  • biological invasions
  • climate matching
  • shipping network
  • vector-based analysis
  • Norway Europe Palearctic region
  • Svalbard Arctic Ocean
  • environmental condition
  • high-Arctic archipelago
  • preventative
  • sea surface warming
  • species introduction risk
  • 07502, Ecology: environmental biology - General and methods
  • 07504, Ecology: environmental biology - Bioclimatology and biometeorology
  • Ecology, Environmental Sciences
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Population Studies
  • Biogeography
  • Climatology
  • Terrestrial Ecology
  • CLIMATIC changes
  • vector‐based analysis


Dive into the research topics of 'Climate change, non-indigenous species and shipping: assessing the risk of species introduction to a high-Arctic archipelago'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this