Short chained triesters of glycerol and citric acid were systematically investigated as novel dual-functional dispersants and plasticisers for use in ceramic processing. Additional systematic studies on a series of diesters having structural similarities with the citrate and glycerol triesters were performed to further assess the significance of specific functional groups for the stabilisation of suspensions.
The overall purpose of this work consists in simplifying the formulation for ceramic processing slurries while at the same time limiting the environmental impact and toxicity. The use of multifunctional additives reduces the risk of unwanted interactions between different components. Additionally, the possible use of one additive in more than one role opens the opportunity for an overall reduction in the number and amount of chemicals and therefore reduction of costs and risks.
For the citrate ester candidates, different alkoxy groups were tested as well as the acetylation on the hydroxyl group. The glycerol esters differed by the length of the carboxylic chain.
Especially triethyl and tributyl citrate are proposed as promising dual-functional additives for ceramic processing. Specifically, for triethyl citrate the dual-function was finally demonstrated by producing a dense piece of 8YSZ through tape casting and subsequent sintering.
- Ceramic processing
- Slurry formulation