Chromosome-level genome of Entada phaseoloides provides insights into genome evolution and triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis

Min Lin, Jian-Bo Jian, Zhu-Qing Zhou, Chun-Hai Chen, Wen Wang, Hui Xiong, Zhi-Nan Mei*

*Corresponding author for this work

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As a medicinal herbal plant, Entada phaseoloides has high levels of secondary metabolites, particularly triterpenoid saponins, which are important resources for scientific research and medical applications. However, the lack of a reference genome for this genus has limited research on its evolution and utilization of its medicinal potential. In this study, we report a chromosome-scale genome assembly for E. phaseoloides using Illumina, Nanopore long reads, and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture technology. The assembled reference genome is 456.18 Mb (scaffold N50=30.9 Mb; contig N50=6.34 Mb) with 95.71 4 pseudochromosomes. E. phaseoloides was estimated to diverge from the Leguminosae lineage at approximately 72.0 million years ago. With the integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data, gene expression patterns and metabolite profiling of E. phaseoloides were determined in different tissues. The pattern of gene expression and metabolic profile of the kernel were distinct from those of other tissues. Furthermore, the evolution of certain gene families involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins and terpenes was analyzed and offer new insights into the formation of these two metabolites. Four CYP genes, one UGT gene and related transcription factors were identified as candidate genes contributing to regulation of triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis. As the first high-quality assembled reference genome in the genus Entada, it will not only provide new information for the evolutionary study of this genus and conservation biology of E. phaseoloides but also lay a foundation for the formation and utilization of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecular Ecology Resources
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)30
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • comparative genome
  • Entada phaseoloides
  • Evolution
  • Gene family
  • Transcriptome
  • Triterpenoid saponin


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