Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes

Mads Brink Laursen, Frederico Augusto Pires Fernandes, Thomas Lundin Christiansen, Kristian Vinter Dahl, Marcel A. J. Somers

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Hard wear resistant surface layers of transition metal carbides can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes where interstitial elements from a steel substrate together with external sources of transition metals (Ti, V, Cr etc.) form hard carbide and/or nitride layers at the steel surface. In this study halide-activated pack cementation techniques were used on tool steel Vanadis 6 and martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 in order to produce hard layers of titanium carbide (TiC), vanadium carbide (V8C7) and chromium carbides (Cr23C6 and Cr7C3). Surface layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness testing. The study shows that porosityfree, homogenous and very hard surface layers can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes. The carbon availability of the substrate influences thickness of obtained layers, as Vanadis 6 tool steel produces thicker layers than AISI 420. X-ray diffraction analysis validates the formation of TiC and V8C7 layers on titanized and vanadized samples respectively, while chromized samples form both Cr23C6 and Cr7C3. It is shown that the two-phase layer of Cr23Cr6/Cr7C3 produced on Vanadis 6 can be transformed into a layer much richer in Cr7C3 and poorer in Cr23C6 by a subsequent heat treatment. The produced chromium-, vanadium- and titanium carbide layers have hardness values of 2116±37HV, 3022±119HV and 3951±66HV respectively, and subsequent hardening and tempering of treated materials can be done without spallation of the hard layers.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSurface Modification Technologies XXVIII. Proceedings of the Twenty Eighth International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies
EditorsT.S. Sudarshan, P. Vuoristo, H. Koivuluoto
PublisherVALARDOCS
Publication date2015
Pages643-654
ISBN (Print)978-81-926196-1-3
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event28th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies - Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
Duration: 16 Jun 201418 Jun 2014
Conference number: 28
http://www.tut.fi/en/international-conference-on-surface-modification-technologies/index.htm

Conference

Conference28th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies
Number28
LocationTampere University of Technology
CountryFinland
CityTampere
Period16/06/201418/06/2014
Internet address

Cite this

Laursen, M. B., Fernandes, F. A. P., Christiansen, T. L., Dahl, K. V., & Somers, M. A. J. (2015). Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes. In T. S. Sudarshan, P. Vuoristo, & H. Koivuluoto (Eds.), Surface Modification Technologies XXVIII. Proceedings of the Twenty Eighth International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies (pp. 643-654). VALARDOCS.
Laursen, Mads Brink ; Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires ; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin ; Dahl, Kristian Vinter ; Somers, Marcel A. J. / Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes. Surface Modification Technologies XXVIII. Proceedings of the Twenty Eighth International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. editor / T.S. Sudarshan ; P. Vuoristo ; H. Koivuluoto. VALARDOCS, 2015. pp. 643-654
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title = "Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes",
abstract = "Hard wear resistant surface layers of transition metal carbides can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes where interstitial elements from a steel substrate together with external sources of transition metals (Ti, V, Cr etc.) form hard carbide and/or nitride layers at the steel surface. In this study halide-activated pack cementation techniques were used on tool steel Vanadis 6 and martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 in order to produce hard layers of titanium carbide (TiC), vanadium carbide (V8C7) and chromium carbides (Cr23C6 and Cr7C3). Surface layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness testing. The study shows that porosityfree, homogenous and very hard surface layers can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes. The carbon availability of the substrate influences thickness of obtained layers, as Vanadis 6 tool steel produces thicker layers than AISI 420. X-ray diffraction analysis validates the formation of TiC and V8C7 layers on titanized and vanadized samples respectively, while chromized samples form both Cr23C6 and Cr7C3. It is shown that the two-phase layer of Cr23Cr6/Cr7C3 produced on Vanadis 6 can be transformed into a layer much richer in Cr7C3 and poorer in Cr23C6 by a subsequent heat treatment. The produced chromium-, vanadium- and titanium carbide layers have hardness values of 2116±37HV, 3022±119HV and 3951±66HV respectively, and subsequent hardening and tempering of treated materials can be done without spallation of the hard layers.",
author = "Laursen, {Mads Brink} and Fernandes, {Frederico Augusto Pires} and Christiansen, {Thomas Lundin} and Dahl, {Kristian Vinter} and Somers, {Marcel A. J.}",
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Laursen, MB, Fernandes, FAP, Christiansen, TL, Dahl, KV & Somers, MAJ 2015, Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes. in TS Sudarshan, P Vuoristo & H Koivuluoto (eds), Surface Modification Technologies XXVIII. Proceedings of the Twenty Eighth International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. VALARDOCS, pp. 643-654, 28th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies, Tampere, Finland, 16/06/2014.

Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes. / Laursen, Mads Brink; Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

Surface Modification Technologies XXVIII. Proceedings of the Twenty Eighth International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. ed. / T.S. Sudarshan; P. Vuoristo; H. Koivuluoto. VALARDOCS, 2015. p. 643-654.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes

AU - Laursen, Mads Brink

AU - Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires

AU - Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

AU - Dahl, Kristian Vinter

AU - Somers, Marcel A. J.

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N2 - Hard wear resistant surface layers of transition metal carbides can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes where interstitial elements from a steel substrate together with external sources of transition metals (Ti, V, Cr etc.) form hard carbide and/or nitride layers at the steel surface. In this study halide-activated pack cementation techniques were used on tool steel Vanadis 6 and martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 in order to produce hard layers of titanium carbide (TiC), vanadium carbide (V8C7) and chromium carbides (Cr23C6 and Cr7C3). Surface layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness testing. The study shows that porosityfree, homogenous and very hard surface layers can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes. The carbon availability of the substrate influences thickness of obtained layers, as Vanadis 6 tool steel produces thicker layers than AISI 420. X-ray diffraction analysis validates the formation of TiC and V8C7 layers on titanized and vanadized samples respectively, while chromized samples form both Cr23C6 and Cr7C3. It is shown that the two-phase layer of Cr23Cr6/Cr7C3 produced on Vanadis 6 can be transformed into a layer much richer in Cr7C3 and poorer in Cr23C6 by a subsequent heat treatment. The produced chromium-, vanadium- and titanium carbide layers have hardness values of 2116±37HV, 3022±119HV and 3951±66HV respectively, and subsequent hardening and tempering of treated materials can be done without spallation of the hard layers.

AB - Hard wear resistant surface layers of transition metal carbides can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes where interstitial elements from a steel substrate together with external sources of transition metals (Ti, V, Cr etc.) form hard carbide and/or nitride layers at the steel surface. In this study halide-activated pack cementation techniques were used on tool steel Vanadis 6 and martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 in order to produce hard layers of titanium carbide (TiC), vanadium carbide (V8C7) and chromium carbides (Cr23C6 and Cr7C3). Surface layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness testing. The study shows that porosityfree, homogenous and very hard surface layers can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes. The carbon availability of the substrate influences thickness of obtained layers, as Vanadis 6 tool steel produces thicker layers than AISI 420. X-ray diffraction analysis validates the formation of TiC and V8C7 layers on titanized and vanadized samples respectively, while chromized samples form both Cr23C6 and Cr7C3. It is shown that the two-phase layer of Cr23Cr6/Cr7C3 produced on Vanadis 6 can be transformed into a layer much richer in Cr7C3 and poorer in Cr23C6 by a subsequent heat treatment. The produced chromium-, vanadium- and titanium carbide layers have hardness values of 2116±37HV, 3022±119HV and 3951±66HV respectively, and subsequent hardening and tempering of treated materials can be done without spallation of the hard layers.

M3 - Article in proceedings

SN - 978-81-926196-1-3

SP - 643

EP - 654

BT - Surface Modification Technologies XXVIII. Proceedings of the Twenty Eighth International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies

A2 - Sudarshan, T.S.

A2 - Vuoristo, P.

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Laursen MB, Fernandes FAP, Christiansen TL, Dahl KV, Somers MAJ. Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes. In Sudarshan TS, Vuoristo P, Koivuluoto H, editors, Surface Modification Technologies XXVIII. Proceedings of the Twenty Eighth International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies. VALARDOCS. 2015. p. 643-654