Four different fly ashes are characterized in the present paper. The ashes differ in the original fuel type and were sampled at distinct plants. The investigation includes two different ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (with and without sorbents addition), a straw ash and an ash from the co-combustion of wood and oil. The focus is laid on differences in ash characteristics and on the mobility of Cd and Cr. These two heavy metals are chosen because Cd is the problematic heavy metal in bio ashes and Cr is problematic in many ash stabilization methods (in the Cr(VI) state). Based on leaching characteristics, Cd is found mainly associated with carbonates in MSW fly ash and is associated with oxides in straw and co-combustion of wood and oil ash, while Cr is mainly associated with oxides in all studied fly ashes or with carbonates in straw ash. Among the studied parameters, crystalline minerals present in fly ash are discussed, measured by an XRD apparatus. Fuel is of main importance to determine Cd and Cr final concentration on fly ash, while flue gas temperature plays an important role as well. The goal of the present work is to underline the main parameters that determine fly ash potentiality to be valorized. The main conclusion of this paper regards fly ash’s profound dissimilarity, where each ash should be studied separately.
Lima, A. T., Ottosen, L. M., Pedersen, A. J., & Ribeiro, A. B. (2008). Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste. Biomass & Bioenergy, 32(3), 277-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.09.005