Serum samples from the male Mousedeer A and the mother, father and sister of A were tested for bovine virus diarrhoea viruses (BVDV) by isolation, and for BVDV antibodies by blocking ELISA and homologous neutralisation test. Further, RNA was extracted and tested by RT-PCR protocol analysing the 5'-untranslated region and the E2 gene of pestivirus. The RT-PCR products were subsequently sequenced. Mousedeer A was positive in virus isolation on three occasions (days 1, 19 and 40) and by RT-PCR. The sister and mother of Mousedeer A were also found virus positive by isolation and RT-PCR. Mousedeer A, its sister and its mother, all had an antibody neutralisation titer below 10. The father of A was virus negative but was positive in the blocking antibody ELISA and had a high neutralisation antibody titer. The repeated detection of BVDV in Mousedeer A, the high amount of virus in serum, the lack of antibodies and the virus positive family members documented that the mousedeer were persistently infected with a pestivirus. The father of A probably had an acute infection resulting in antibodies to pestivirus and viral clearance. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the mousedeer pestivirus was closely related to BVDV Type 1f. The existences of persistently infected animals in non-domestic species have great implications for BVDV eradication campaigns in cattle.