Purpose: We investigated the association between an increased intake of one dairy product subgroup at the expense of another within a 5-year period and the subsequent 10-year risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods: The cohort included 39,393 adults with two measurements of diet assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) administered in 1993–1997 and 1999–2003. Dairy products were milk (skimmed, semi-skimmed, whole fat), buttermilk, low-fat yogurt, whole-fat yogurt, cheese and butter. Type 2 diabetes cases were ascertained from the Danish National Diabetes Register. The pseudo-observation method was used to calculate risk differences (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The data were analysed in age strata to fulfil the assumption of independent entry. Results: Among participants aged 56–59 years at completion of the follow-up FFQ, increased intake of whole-fat yogurt in place of skimmed, semi-skimmed or whole-fat milk was associated with a reduced risk (RD% [95% CI]: − 0.8% [− 1.3, − 0.2]; − 0.6% [− 1,1, − 0.1]; − 0.7 [− 1.2, − 0.1]; per 50 g/d, respectively). Among participants aged 60–64 and 65–72, substitution of skimmed milk for semi-skimmed milk was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (0.5% [0.2, 0.7]; 0.4% [0.1, 0.7]; per 50 g/d, respectively). Similar patterns of associations were found after adjustment for potential mediators. Conclusion: Our results suggest that substitution of whole-fat yogurt for milk among those aged 56–59 decreases risk of type 2 diabetes and substitution of skimmed milk for semi-skimmed milk may increase the risk among those aged 60–64 and 65–72.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Daniel B. Ibsen was supported by a PhD fellowship by Aarhus University and Tuomas O. Kilpeläinen was supported by the Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF18CC0034900 and NFF17OC0026848). The Diet, Cancer and Health cohort was funded by Danish Cancer Society. The funding agencies had no influence on the design, analysis or writing of this paper.
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- Diet change
- Follow-up studies
- Substitution models