A highly efficient method for functionalizing nanoparticles and directly quantifying conjugation efficiency and ligand surface density has been developed. Attachment of 3-azido-modifed RGD-peptides to PEGylated liposomes was achieved by using Cu-free click conditions. Upon coupling a fluorophore is formed, which could be utilized to monitor conjugation efficiency and the obtained ligand surface density in situ, without prior purification.
- Surface functionalization
- Click chemistry