Carotid Stenosis Assessment with Vector Concentration before and after Stenting

Andreas Hjelm Brandt, Tin-Quoc Nguyen, Henrik Gutte, Jonathan Frederik Carlsen, Ramin Moshavegh, Jørgen Arendt Jensen, Michael Bachmann Nielsen, Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen

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Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is considered the reference method for the assessment of carotid artery stenosis; however, the procedure is invasive and accompanied by ionizing radiation. Velocity estimation with duplex ultrasound (DUS) is widely used for carotid artery stenosis assessment since no radiation or intravenous contrast is required; however, the method is angle-dependent. Vector concentration (VC) is a parameter for flow complexity assessment derived from the angle independent ultrasound method vector flow imaging (VFI), and VC has shown to correlate strongly with stenosis degree. The aim of this study was to compare VC estimates and DUS estimated peak-systolic (PSV) and end-diastolic velocities (EDV) for carotid artery stenosis patients, with the stenosis degree obtained with DSA. Eleven patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were examined with DUS, VFI, and DSA before and after stent treatment. Compared to DSA, VC showed a strong correlation (r = −0.79, p <0.001), while PSV (r = 0.68, p = 0.002) and EDV (r = 0.51, p = 0.048) obtained with DUS showed a moderate correlation. VFI using VC calculations may be a useful ultrasound method for carotid artery stenosis and stent patency assessment.
Original languageEnglish
Article number420
Issue numberSpecial Issue: New Trends in Vascular Imaging
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Vector Concentration
  • Vector flow imaging
  • Duplex ultrasound
  • Digital subtraction angiography
  • Stenosis degree
  • Carotid artery stenosis

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