The effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep) on carbon (C) sequestration in forests have often been assessed by relating differences in productivity to spatial variations of Ndep across a large geographic domain. These correlations generally suffer from covariation of other confounding variables related to climate and other growth-limiting factors, as well as large uncertainties in total (dryCwet) reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition.We propose a methodology for untangling the effects of Ndep from those of meteorological variables, soil water retention capacity and stand age, using a mechanistic forest growth model in combination with eddy covariance CO2 exchange fluxes from a Europe-wide network of 22 forest flux towers. Total Nr deposition rates were estimated from local measurements as far as possible. The forest data were compared with data from natural or semi-natural, non-woody vegetation sites. The response of forest net ecosystem productivity to nitrogen deposition (dNEP= dNdep) was estimated after accounting for the effects on gross primary productivity (GPP) of the co-correlates by means of a meta-modelling standardization procedure, which resulted in a reduction by a factor of about 2 of the uncorrected, apparent dGPP=dNdep value. This model-enhanced analysis of the C and Ndep flux observations at the scale of the European network suggests a mean overall dNEP= dNdep response of forest lifetime C sequestration to Ndep of the order of 40 50 g C per g N, which is slightly larger but not significantly different from the range of estimates published in the most recent reviews. Importantly, patterns of gross primary and net ecosystem productivity versus Ndep were non-linear, with no further growth responses at high Ndep levels (Ndep >2.5 3 gNm2 yr1) but accompanied by increasingly large ecosystem N losses by leaching and gaseous emissions. The reduced increase in productivity per unit N deposited at high Ndep levels implies that the forecast increased Nr emissions and increased Ndep levels in large areas of Asia may not positively impact the continent s forest CO2 sink. The large level of unexplained variability in observed carbon sequestration efficiency (CSE) across sites further adds to the uncertainty in the dC=dN response.