C-terminal processing of low pI barley alpha-amylase (AMY1) results in multiple forms in malt, aleurone protoplasts, and transformed yeast. Expression of an AMY1 cDNA in yeast thus leads to four secreted forms with distinct pI values between 4.7 and 5.1 and essentially identical Mr. AMY1-1 and AMY1-2 lacking the C-terminal Arg-Ser are generated by carboxypeptidase in vitro from AMY1-3 and AMY1-4, respectively. In vivo processing is due to the KEX1-encoded yeast carboxypeptidase. AMY1-2 and AMY1-4 are fully active, whereas AMY+-1 and AMY1-3 retain 3-4% activity toward p-nitrophenyl maltoheptaoside and have one fewer SH group, due to reaction with glutathione. AMY1-1-AMY1-4 are indistinguishable from malt AMY1 with respect to Ca(2+)-, substrate-, and beta-cyclodextrin-binding as well as recognition by three monoclonal antibodies and limited proteolysis by proteinase K. Transient AMY1 precursors present in barley aleurone protoplasts were trapped by addition of serine carboxypeptidase inhibitors, indicating that endogenous carboxypeptidase participates in the maturation of AMY1 during germination. Three pairs of precursor/mature AMY1 forms are recognized, presumably corresponding to the three genes encoding AMY1. Malt carboxypeptidase II can convert in vitro the precursors isolated from protoplasts into processed enzyme, and AMY1 from malt accordingly lacks the C-terminal heptapeptide. This report thus demonstrates posttranslational protein modification by carboxypeptidase in higher plants.
|Journal||Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A|
|Publication status||Published - 1991|