We consider low-dimensional dynamical systems exposed to a heat bath and to additional ac fields. The presence of these ac fields may lead to a breaking of certain spatial or temporal symmetries, which in turn cause nonzero averages of relevant observables. Nonlinear (non)adiabatic response is employed to explain the effect. We consider a case of a particle in a periodic potential as an example and discuss the relevant symmetry breakings and the mechanisms of rectification of the current in such a system.
|Journal||Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 2002|
Bibliographical noteCopyright (2002) American Physical Society