Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

Shiwen Zhuang, Radhakrishna Shetty, Mikkel Hansen, Arvid Fromberg, Preben Bøje Hansen, Timothy John Hobley

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted barley, oat, rye or wheat using exogenously added enzymes. It also helps to understand the process ability by revealing specific needs when manufacturing different type of beers from unmalted grains, potentially paving the way to process optimisation and development of future products.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Food Research and Technology
Volume243
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)447-454
Number of pages8
ISSN1438-2377
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Biochemistry
  • Chemistry (all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Beer
  • Exogenous enzymes
  • Fermentation
  • Flavour
  • Wort
  • Brewing
  • Enzymes
  • Flavors
  • Optimization
  • Enzyme blends
  • Free amino nitrogens
  • Grain types
  • Higher alcohols
  • Process optimisation
  • Quality attributes
  • Grain (agricultural product)

Cite this

@article{d23c0387e60f43e9bcb8b58fe73b7edf,
title = "Brewing with 100 {\%} unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye",
abstract = "Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 {\%} unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 {\%} unmalted barley, wheat, oat and rye in comparison with 100 {\%} malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea{\circledR} Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 {\%} unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 {\%} unmalted barley, oat, rye or wheat using exogenously added enzymes. It also helps to understand the process ability by revealing specific needs when manufacturing different type of beers from unmalted grains, potentially paving the way to process optimisation and development of future products.",
keywords = "Biotechnology, Food Science, Biochemistry, Chemistry (all), Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Beer, Exogenous enzymes, Fermentation, Flavour, Wort, Brewing, Enzymes, Flavors, Optimization, Enzyme blends, Free amino nitrogens, Grain types, Higher alcohols, Process optimisation, Quality attributes, Grain (agricultural product)",
author = "Shiwen Zhuang and Radhakrishna Shetty and Mikkel Hansen and Arvid Fromberg and Hansen, {Preben B{\o}je} and Hobley, {Timothy John}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1007/s00217-016-2758-1",
language = "English",
volume = "243",
pages = "447--454",
journal = "European Food Research and Technology",
issn = "1438-2377",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "3",

}

Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye. / Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel; Fromberg, Arvid; Hansen, Preben Bøje; Hobley, Timothy John.

In: European Food Research and Technology, Vol. 243, No. 3, 2017, p. 447-454.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

AU - Zhuang, Shiwen

AU - Shetty, Radhakrishna

AU - Hansen, Mikkel

AU - Fromberg, Arvid

AU - Hansen, Preben Bøje

AU - Hobley, Timothy John

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted barley, oat, rye or wheat using exogenously added enzymes. It also helps to understand the process ability by revealing specific needs when manufacturing different type of beers from unmalted grains, potentially paving the way to process optimisation and development of future products.

AB - Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted barley, oat, rye or wheat using exogenously added enzymes. It also helps to understand the process ability by revealing specific needs when manufacturing different type of beers from unmalted grains, potentially paving the way to process optimisation and development of future products.

KW - Biotechnology

KW - Food Science

KW - Biochemistry

KW - Chemistry (all)

KW - Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

KW - Beer

KW - Exogenous enzymes

KW - Fermentation

KW - Flavour

KW - Wort

KW - Brewing

KW - Enzymes

KW - Flavors

KW - Optimization

KW - Enzyme blends

KW - Free amino nitrogens

KW - Grain types

KW - Higher alcohols

KW - Process optimisation

KW - Quality attributes

KW - Grain (agricultural product)

U2 - 10.1007/s00217-016-2758-1

DO - 10.1007/s00217-016-2758-1

M3 - Journal article

VL - 243

SP - 447

EP - 454

JO - European Food Research and Technology

JF - European Food Research and Technology

SN - 1438-2377

IS - 3

ER -