At the crossroads of chemistry, electronics, mechanical engineering, polymer science, biology, tissue engineering, computer science, and materials science, electrical devices are currently being engineered that blend directly within organs and tissues. These sophisticated devices are mediators, recorders, and stimula-tors of electricity with the capacity to monitor important electrophysiological events, replace disabled body parts, or even stimulate tissues to overcome their current limitations. They are therefore capable of leading humanity forward into the age of cyborgs, a time in which human biology can be hacked at will to yield beings with abilities beyond their natural capabilities. The resulting advances have been made possible by the emergence of conformal and soft electronic materials that can readily integrate with the curvilinear, dynamic, delicate, and flexible human body. This article discusses the recent rapid pace of development in the field of cybernetics with special emphasis on the important role that flexible and electrically active materials have played therein
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