The urinary bladder is a complex organ with the primary functions of storing urine under low and stable pressure and micturition. Many clinical conditions can cause poor bladder compliance, reduced capacity, and incontinence, requiring bladder augmentation or use of regenerative techniques and scaffolds. To replicate an organ that is under frequent mechanical loading and unloading, special attention towards fulfilling its biomechanical requirements is necessary. Several biological and synthetic scaffolds are available, with various characteristics that qualify them for use in bladder regeneration in vitro and in vivo, including in the treatment of clinical conditions. The biomechanical properties of the native bladder can be investigated using a range of mechanical tests for standardized assessments, as well as mathematical and computational bladder biomechanics. Despite a large body of research into tissue engineering of the bladder wall, some features of the native bladder and the scaffolds used to mimic it need further elucidation. Collection of comparable reference data from different animal models would be a helpful tool for researchers and will enable comparison of different scaffolds in order to optimize characteristics before entering preclinical and clinical trials.
Ajalloueian, F., Lemon, G., Hilborn, J., Chronakis, I. S., & Fossum, M. (2018). Bladder biomechanics and the use of scaffolds for regenerative medicine in the urinary bladder. Nature Reviews. Urology, 15(3), 155-174. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrurol.2018.5