Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rd to four rare ginsenosides and evaluation of their anti-melanogenic effects

Le Zhang, Liwei Wang, Yufei Chen, Yaya Yang, Guohua Xia, Yuao Guo, Huan Yang*, Yuping Shen*, Anne S. Meyer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Improving physiological activity of primary ginsenosides through biotransformation is of great significance for food applications. In this study, gynostapenoside XVII, gynostapenoside LXXV, ginsenoside F2, and ginsenoside CK were obtained by enzymolysis of an accessible extract composed of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rd. Their effects on melanin content and tyrosinase activity were compared in vitro, and molecular docking simulation was employed to elucidate the interaction between tyrosinase and individual saponin. The results indicated that four rare ginsenosides decreased tyrosinase activity, melanin content and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression level, more greatly than their primary ginsenosides, and they were more readily to bind with ASP10 and GLY68 at active site of tyrosinase to inhibit tyrosinase activity as well. These findings suggested that the rare ginsenosides obtained by enzymolysis had excellent anti-melanogenic effect, which could expand the application of ginsenosides in the field of functional foods and health supplements.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Natural Medicines
Pages (from-to)939-952
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Ginsenoside
  • Biotransformation
  • Melanin
  • Gynostapenoside XVII
  • Gynostapenoside LXXV
  • Skin whitening


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