Biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, in Serratia: identification of a novel 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) assembly pathway, definition of the terminal condensing enzyme, and implications for undecylprodigiosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces

N. R. Williamson, Henrik Toft Simonsen, R. A. A. Ahmed, G. Goldet, H. Slater, L. Woodley, F. J. Leeper, G. P. C. Salmond

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The biosynthetic pathway of the red-pigmented antibiotic, prodigiosin, produced by Serratia sp. is known to involve separate pathways for the production of the monopyrrole, 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) and the bipyrrole, 4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde (MBC) which are then coupled in the final condensation step. We have previously reported the cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of the pig cluster responsible for prodigiosin biosynthesis in two Serratia sp. In this article we report the creation of in-frame deletions or insertions in every biosynthetic gene in the cluster from Serratia sp. ATCC 39006. The biosynthetic intermediates accumulating in each mutant have been analysed by LC-MS, cross-feeding and genetic complementation studies. Based on those results we assign specific roles in the biosynthesis of MBC to the following Pig proteins: PigI, PigG, PigA, PigJ, PigH, PigM, PigF and PigN. We report a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of MAP, involving PigD, PigE and PigB. We also report a new chemical synthesis of MAP and one of its precursors, 3-acetyloctanal. Finally, we identify the condensing enzyme as PigC. We reassess the existing literature and discuss the significance of the results for the biosynthesis of undecylprodigiosin by the Red cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).
Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecular Microbiology
Volume56
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)971-989
Number of pages19
ISSN0950-382X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes

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