Biomedical Applications of MXene-Integrated Composites: Regenerative Medicine, Infection Therapy, Cancer Treatment, and Biosensing

Aziz Maleki*, Matineh Ghomi, Nasser Nikfarjam, Mahsa Akbari, Esmaeel Sharifi, Mohammad Ali Shahbazi, Mehraneh Kermanian, Mohammed Seyedhamzeh, Ehsan Nazarzadeh Zare, Mehdi Mehrali, Omid Moradi, Farshid Sefat, Virgilio Mattoli, Pooyan Makvandi*, Yu Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review

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MXenes (viz., transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides) have emerged as a new subclass of 2D materials. Due to their outstanding physicochemical and biological properties, MXenes have gained much attention in the biomedical field in recent years, including drug delivery systems, regenerative medicine, and biosensing. Additionally, the incorporation of MXenes into hydrogels has garnered significant interest in biomedical engineering as an electroactive and mechanical nanoreinforcer capable of converting nonconductive scaffolds into excellent conductors of electricity with an impressive effect on mechanical properties for the engineering of electroactive organs and tissues such as cardiac, skeletal muscle, and nerve. However, many questions and problems remain unresolved that need to be answered to usher these 2D materials toward their true destiny. Thus, this review paper aims to provide an overview of the design and applications of MXene-integrated composites for biomedical applications, including cardiac tissue engineering, wound healing, infection therapy, cancer therapy, and biosensors. Moreover, the current challenges and limitations of utilizing MXenes in vivo are highlighted and discussed, followed by its prospects as a guideline toward possible various futuristic biomedical applications. This review article will inspire researchers, who search for properties, opportunities, and challenges of using this 2D nanomaterial in biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2203430
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number34
Number of pages33
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • 2D materials
  • Biological properties
  • Biomedical applications
  • Integrated composites
  • MXenes


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