Various processes that have been successfully developed for wastewater treatment (treatment of industrial wastes/effluents) have been surveyed with special reference to biological treatment including design of bioreactors. Limitations of each process, design and performance characteristics of different kinds of bioreactors developed starting from stirred tanks to packed bed, fluidized bed, moving bed, semifluidized bed, inverse fluidized bed, sludge bed/sludge blanket and downflow stationary fixed film bioreactors have been highlighted. Utilization of membrane-based technology and liquid phase oxygen technology in wastewater treatment has also been analyzed. Both aerobic and anaerobic processes have been considered and possibilities of clubbing waste treatment with waste utilization (production of valuable products from waste streams) have also been surveyed and scrutinized.
- Biological wastewater treatment
- Stirred tank bioreactors
- Moving bed and packed bed bioreactors
- Semifluidized and inverse fluidized biofilm reactors
- DSFF and UASB bioreactors