Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in fish communities: biomass is related to evenness and the environment, not to species richness

Aurore Maureaud*, Dorothee Hodapp, Pieter Daniël van Denderen, Helmut Hillebrand, Henrik Gislason, Tim Spaanheden Dencker, Esther Deborah Beukhof, Martin Lindegren

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is a topic of considerable interest to scientists and managers because a better understanding of its underlying mechanisms may help us mitigate the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystems. Our current knowledge of BEF relies heavily on theoretical and experimental studies, typically conducted on a narrow range of spatio-temporal scales, environmental conditions and trophic levels. Hence, whether a relationship holds in the natural environment is poorly understood, especially in exploited marine ecosystems. Using large-scale observations of marine fish communities, we applied a structural equation modelling framework to investigate the existence and significance of BEF relationships across northwestern European seas. We find that ecosystem functioning, here represented by spatial patterns in total fish biomass, is unrelated to species richness – the most commonly used diversity metric in BEF studies. Instead, community evenness, differences in species composition, and abiotic variables are significant drivers. In particular, we find that high fish biomass is associated with fish assemblages dominated by a few generalist species with high trophic level, who are able to exploit both the benthic and pelagic energy pathway. Our study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms behind marine ecosystem functioning and allows for the integration of biodiversity into management considerations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20191189
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volume286
Issue number1906
ISSN0962-8452
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Dominance
  • BEF relationship
  • Biomass
  • Ecosystem functioning
  • Fish biodiversity

Cite this

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title = "Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in fish communities: biomass is related to evenness and the environment, not to species richness",
abstract = "The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is a topic of considerable interest to scientists and managers because a better understanding of its underlying mechanisms may help us mitigate the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystems. Our current knowledge of BEF relies heavily on theoretical and experimental studies, typically conducted on a narrow range of spatio-temporal scales, environmental conditions and trophic levels. Hence, whether a relationship holds in the natural environment is poorly understood, especially in exploited marine ecosystems. Using large-scale observations of marine fish communities, we applied a structural equation modelling framework to investigate the existence and significance of BEF relationships across northwestern European seas. We find that ecosystem functioning, here represented by spatial patterns in total fish biomass, is unrelated to species richness – the most commonly used diversity metric in BEF studies. Instead, community evenness, differences in species composition, and abiotic variables are significant drivers. In particular, we find that high fish biomass is associated with fish assemblages dominated by a few generalist species with high trophic level, who are able to exploit both the benthic and pelagic energy pathway. Our study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms behind marine ecosystem functioning and allows for the integration of biodiversity into management considerations.",
keywords = "Dominance, BEF relationship, Biomass, Ecosystem functioning, Fish biodiversity",
author = "Aurore Maureaud and Dorothee Hodapp and {van Denderen}, {Pieter Dani{\"e}l} and Helmut Hillebrand and Henrik Gislason and Dencker, {Tim Spaanheden} and Beukhof, {Esther Deborah} and Martin Lindegren",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1098/rspb.2019.1189",
language = "English",
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journal = "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences",
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T1 - Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in fish communities: biomass is related to evenness and the environment, not to species richness

AU - Maureaud, Aurore

AU - Hodapp, Dorothee

AU - van Denderen, Pieter Daniël

AU - Hillebrand, Helmut

AU - Gislason, Henrik

AU - Dencker, Tim Spaanheden

AU - Beukhof, Esther Deborah

AU - Lindegren, Martin

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is a topic of considerable interest to scientists and managers because a better understanding of its underlying mechanisms may help us mitigate the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystems. Our current knowledge of BEF relies heavily on theoretical and experimental studies, typically conducted on a narrow range of spatio-temporal scales, environmental conditions and trophic levels. Hence, whether a relationship holds in the natural environment is poorly understood, especially in exploited marine ecosystems. Using large-scale observations of marine fish communities, we applied a structural equation modelling framework to investigate the existence and significance of BEF relationships across northwestern European seas. We find that ecosystem functioning, here represented by spatial patterns in total fish biomass, is unrelated to species richness – the most commonly used diversity metric in BEF studies. Instead, community evenness, differences in species composition, and abiotic variables are significant drivers. In particular, we find that high fish biomass is associated with fish assemblages dominated by a few generalist species with high trophic level, who are able to exploit both the benthic and pelagic energy pathway. Our study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms behind marine ecosystem functioning and allows for the integration of biodiversity into management considerations.

AB - The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is a topic of considerable interest to scientists and managers because a better understanding of its underlying mechanisms may help us mitigate the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystems. Our current knowledge of BEF relies heavily on theoretical and experimental studies, typically conducted on a narrow range of spatio-temporal scales, environmental conditions and trophic levels. Hence, whether a relationship holds in the natural environment is poorly understood, especially in exploited marine ecosystems. Using large-scale observations of marine fish communities, we applied a structural equation modelling framework to investigate the existence and significance of BEF relationships across northwestern European seas. We find that ecosystem functioning, here represented by spatial patterns in total fish biomass, is unrelated to species richness – the most commonly used diversity metric in BEF studies. Instead, community evenness, differences in species composition, and abiotic variables are significant drivers. In particular, we find that high fish biomass is associated with fish assemblages dominated by a few generalist species with high trophic level, who are able to exploit both the benthic and pelagic energy pathway. Our study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms behind marine ecosystem functioning and allows for the integration of biodiversity into management considerations.

KW - Dominance

KW - BEF relationship

KW - Biomass

KW - Ecosystem functioning

KW - Fish biodiversity

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DO - 10.1098/rspb.2019.1189

M3 - Journal article

VL - 286

JO - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

JF - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

SN - 0962-8452

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