We investigated the biodistribution following the administration of nanosized (about 50 and 90 nm) cationic (ζ: +30 and +50 mV) micelles and liposomes intended for drug delivery. The particles were stable and well characterized with respect to size and ζ potential. Ten 5- to 6-week-old male rats were used. The animals were randomly allocated to five groups receiving either cationic micelles or cationic liposomes by single intravenous (IV) administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg bodyweight by single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection at a dose of 50 μg or no treatment. ICV administration was used to study local distribution in the brain and IV administration to study the systemic distribution of the particles. For both types of particles, ICV administration showed distribution in all ventricles in the brain while IV delivery displayed distribution to the major organs liver, spleen, kidney and lung, but not to the brain. Our data suggest that cationic micelles and liposomes are widely distributed in the body, indicating that these could potentially be used as drug delivery carriers to the major organs, but they do not cross the blood–brain barrier to a significant extent, without a targeting ligand attached. However, they are able to persist in the ventricles of the brain up to 24 h after ICV administration, demonstrating a new ability.