Biodegradation of Crystal Violet by Agrobacterium radiobacter

G.K. Parshetti, S.G. Parshetti, A.A. Telke, Dayanand Kalyani, R.A. Doong, S.P. Govindwar

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Agrobacterium radiobacter MTCC 8161 completely decolorized the Crystal Violet with 8 hr (10 mg/L) at static anoxic conditions. The decreased decolorization capability by A. radiobacter was observed, when the Crystal Violet concentration was increased from 10 to 100 mg/L. Semi-synthetic medium containing 1% yeast extract and 0.1% NH4C1 has shown 100% decolorization of Crystal Violet within 5 hr. A complete degradation of Crystal Violet by A. radiobacter was observed up to 7 cycles of repeated addition (10 mg/L). When the effect of increasing inoculum concentration on decolorization of Crystal Violet (100 mg/L) was studied, maximum decolorization was observed with 15% inoculum concentration. A significant increase in the activities of laccase (184%) and aminopyrine Af-demethylase (300%) in cells obtained after decolorization indicated the involvement of these enzymes in decolorization process. The intermediates formed during the degradation of Crystal Violet were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). It was detected the presence of N,N,N′,N″-tetramethylpararosaniline, [N,N-dimethylaminophenyl] [Nmethylaminophenyl] benzophenone, [N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, 4-methyl amino phenol and phenol. We proposed the hypothetical metabolic pathway of Crystal Violet biodegradation by A. radiobacter. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity study showed that Crystal Violet biodegradation metabolites were less toxic to bacteria (A. radiobacter, P. aurugenosa and A. vinelandii) contributing to soil fertility and for four kinds of plants (Sorghum bicolor, Vigna radiata, Lens culinaris and Triticum aestivum) which are most sensitive, fast growing and commonly used in Indian agriculture.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Environmental Sciences
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)1384-1393
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Agrobacterium radiobacter
  • Crystal Violet
  • biodegradation
  • gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy
  • toxicity study


Dive into the research topics of 'Biodegradation of Crystal Violet by Agrobacterium radiobacter'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this