The paper develops a biological-economic evaluation tool to analyse the consequences for trawl fishers of implementing more selective fishing technologies. This is done by merging a dynamic biological population model and an economic cost-benefit evaluation framework to describe the consequences for the fish stocks, fishermen and society. The bio-economic evaluation is applied to the case of the Danish trawl fishery in Kattegat and Skagerrak, which experiences a high level of discards and byratches of several species. Four different kinds of selectivity scenarios are evaluated in comparison with a baseline. The results from the evaluation are indicators for the consequences on ecological and economic levels. The results show that implementation of different selective fishing gear in the Kattegat and Skagerrak mixed trawl fisheries generally implies a trade off over time between rebuilding the stocks and economic loss. Moreover, the analysis shows that implementation of more selective gear is not always beneficial. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.