In Axelved, Denmark, an abandoned gas filling station serves as a test field for phytoremediation. Laboratory studies accompany the project. The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel to willow and poplar trees was studied by use of a tree transpiration toxicity test. The correlation between diesel content in soil and decrease in willow tree transpiration (Salix viminalis x schwerinii) was highly significant (r2 = 0.81, n = 19). The EC50 (50% inhibition of transpiration) for the sum of hydrocarbons (HC) was determined to be 3910 mg/kg (95% confidence interval from 2900 to 5270 mg/kg). The EC10 was 810 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 396 to 1660 mg/kg). The results were verified with artificially mixed diesel and gasolinecontaminated soils and two willow and one poplar species (S. viminalis, S. alba and Populus nigra). The degradation of radiolabeled m-xylene was studied with and without willows. The compound was readily degraded. Willow trees accelerated the elimination, but mainly due to the volatilization of m-xylene. Model studies provided the result that biodegradation in soil is the fastest elimination process at the site, but it is limited by the availability of electron acceptors. The pollutants are almost persistent in the groundwater, but in aerated soil, 10000 mg/kg hydrocarbons at 1 m depth are degraded within 13 years. The main effect of willows on the pollutants’ persistence is that willows transpire water, lower the groundwater level and aerate the soil, hereby speeding up biodegradation.