Being born small-for-gestational-age is associated with an unfavourable dietary intake in Danish adolescent girls: findings from the Danish National Birth Cohort

Freja Bach Kampmann*, L. G. Grunnet, T. I. Halldorsson, A. A. Bjerregaard, C. Granstrøm, Sara Monteiro Pires, M. Strøm, A. A. Vaag, Inge Tetens, S. F. Olsen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Individuals born small have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Altered food preferences in these subjects seem to play a role; however, limited evidence is available on the association between being born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at term and food intake in adolescence. Alterations in leptin, ghrelin and dopamine levels are suggested mechanisms linking SGA with later food intake. From a large prospective Danish National Birth Cohort, we compared dietary intake of adolescents being born SGA with normal-for-gestational-age (NGA) adolescents. Intake of foods and nutrients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire in a subsample of 15,607 14-year-old individuals born at term. SGA was defined by birth weight (BW) <10th percentile (n = 1470) and NGA as BW between 10 and 90th percentile (n = 14,137) according to sex and gestational age-specific BW standard curves. Girls born SGA had a 7% (95% CI: 3–12%, P = 0.002) higher intake of added sugar and a 2–8% lower intake of dietary fibre, vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and total n−6, compared with NGA girls (P < 0.05). Adjusting for parental socio-occupational status, maternal smoking and diet in pregnancy did not substantially change the differences in dietary intake, except from dietary fibre, which were no longer statistically significant. No significant differences in dietary intake between SGA and NGA boys were found. In summary, girls born SGA had an unfavourable dietary intake compared with NGA girls. These differences persisted after controlling for potential confounders, thus supporting a fetal programming effect on dietary intake in girls born SGA at term. However, residual confounding by other factors operating early in childhood cannot be excluded.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Volume10
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)488-496
ISSN2040-1744
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • adolescence
  • dietary intake
  • fetal programming
  • small-for-gestational-age (SGA)

Cite this

Bach Kampmann, Freja ; Grunnet, L. G. ; Halldorsson, T. I. ; Bjerregaard, A. A. ; Granstrøm, C. ; Pires, Sara Monteiro ; Strøm, M. ; Vaag, A. A. ; Tetens, Inge ; Olsen, S. F. / Being born small-for-gestational-age is associated with an unfavourable dietary intake in Danish adolescent girls: findings from the Danish National Birth Cohort. In: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. 2019 ; Vol. 10, No. 4. pp. 488-496.
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title = "Being born small-for-gestational-age is associated with an unfavourable dietary intake in Danish adolescent girls: findings from the Danish National Birth Cohort",
abstract = "Individuals born small have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Altered food preferences in these subjects seem to play a role; however, limited evidence is available on the association between being born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at term and food intake in adolescence. Alterations in leptin, ghrelin and dopamine levels are suggested mechanisms linking SGA with later food intake. From a large prospective Danish National Birth Cohort, we compared dietary intake of adolescents being born SGA with normal-for-gestational-age (NGA) adolescents. Intake of foods and nutrients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire in a subsample of 15,607 14-year-old individuals born at term. SGA was defined by birth weight (BW) <10th percentile (n = 1470) and NGA as BW between 10 and 90th percentile (n = 14,137) according to sex and gestational age-specific BW standard curves. Girls born SGA had a 7{\%} (95{\%} CI: 3–12{\%}, P = 0.002) higher intake of added sugar and a 2–8{\%} lower intake of dietary fibre, vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and total n−6, compared with NGA girls (P < 0.05). Adjusting for parental socio-occupational status, maternal smoking and diet in pregnancy did not substantially change the differences in dietary intake, except from dietary fibre, which were no longer statistically significant. No significant differences in dietary intake between SGA and NGA boys were found. In summary, girls born SGA had an unfavourable dietary intake compared with NGA girls. These differences persisted after controlling for potential confounders, thus supporting a fetal programming effect on dietary intake in girls born SGA at term. However, residual confounding by other factors operating early in childhood cannot be excluded.",
keywords = "adolescence, dietary intake, fetal programming, small-for-gestational-age (SGA)",
author = "{Bach Kampmann}, Freja and Grunnet, {L. G.} and Halldorsson, {T. I.} and Bjerregaard, {A. A.} and C. Granstr{\o}m and Pires, {Sara Monteiro} and M. Str{\o}m and Vaag, {A. A.} and Inge Tetens and Olsen, {S. F.}",
year = "2019",
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language = "English",
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Being born small-for-gestational-age is associated with an unfavourable dietary intake in Danish adolescent girls: findings from the Danish National Birth Cohort. / Bach Kampmann, Freja; Grunnet, L. G.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Bjerregaard, A. A.; Granstrøm, C.; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Strøm, M.; Vaag, A. A.; Tetens, Inge; Olsen, S. F.

In: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2019, p. 488-496.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Being born small-for-gestational-age is associated with an unfavourable dietary intake in Danish adolescent girls: findings from the Danish National Birth Cohort

AU - Bach Kampmann, Freja

AU - Grunnet, L. G.

AU - Halldorsson, T. I.

AU - Bjerregaard, A. A.

AU - Granstrøm, C.

AU - Pires, Sara Monteiro

AU - Strøm, M.

AU - Vaag, A. A.

AU - Tetens, Inge

AU - Olsen, S. F.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Individuals born small have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Altered food preferences in these subjects seem to play a role; however, limited evidence is available on the association between being born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at term and food intake in adolescence. Alterations in leptin, ghrelin and dopamine levels are suggested mechanisms linking SGA with later food intake. From a large prospective Danish National Birth Cohort, we compared dietary intake of adolescents being born SGA with normal-for-gestational-age (NGA) adolescents. Intake of foods and nutrients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire in a subsample of 15,607 14-year-old individuals born at term. SGA was defined by birth weight (BW) <10th percentile (n = 1470) and NGA as BW between 10 and 90th percentile (n = 14,137) according to sex and gestational age-specific BW standard curves. Girls born SGA had a 7% (95% CI: 3–12%, P = 0.002) higher intake of added sugar and a 2–8% lower intake of dietary fibre, vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and total n−6, compared with NGA girls (P < 0.05). Adjusting for parental socio-occupational status, maternal smoking and diet in pregnancy did not substantially change the differences in dietary intake, except from dietary fibre, which were no longer statistically significant. No significant differences in dietary intake between SGA and NGA boys were found. In summary, girls born SGA had an unfavourable dietary intake compared with NGA girls. These differences persisted after controlling for potential confounders, thus supporting a fetal programming effect on dietary intake in girls born SGA at term. However, residual confounding by other factors operating early in childhood cannot be excluded.

AB - Individuals born small have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Altered food preferences in these subjects seem to play a role; however, limited evidence is available on the association between being born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at term and food intake in adolescence. Alterations in leptin, ghrelin and dopamine levels are suggested mechanisms linking SGA with later food intake. From a large prospective Danish National Birth Cohort, we compared dietary intake of adolescents being born SGA with normal-for-gestational-age (NGA) adolescents. Intake of foods and nutrients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire in a subsample of 15,607 14-year-old individuals born at term. SGA was defined by birth weight (BW) <10th percentile (n = 1470) and NGA as BW between 10 and 90th percentile (n = 14,137) according to sex and gestational age-specific BW standard curves. Girls born SGA had a 7% (95% CI: 3–12%, P = 0.002) higher intake of added sugar and a 2–8% lower intake of dietary fibre, vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and total n−6, compared with NGA girls (P < 0.05). Adjusting for parental socio-occupational status, maternal smoking and diet in pregnancy did not substantially change the differences in dietary intake, except from dietary fibre, which were no longer statistically significant. No significant differences in dietary intake between SGA and NGA boys were found. In summary, girls born SGA had an unfavourable dietary intake compared with NGA girls. These differences persisted after controlling for potential confounders, thus supporting a fetal programming effect on dietary intake in girls born SGA at term. However, residual confounding by other factors operating early in childhood cannot be excluded.

KW - adolescence

KW - dietary intake

KW - fetal programming

KW - small-for-gestational-age (SGA)

U2 - 10.1017/S2040174418000910

DO - 10.1017/S2040174418000910

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 30419995

VL - 10

SP - 488

EP - 496

JO - Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

JF - Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

SN - 2040-1744

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