Bayesian binding and fusion models explain illusion and enhancement effects in audiovisual speech perception

Alma Lindborg*, Tobias S. Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

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Abstract

Speech is perceived with both the ears and the eyes. Adding congruent visual speech improves the perception of a faint auditory speech stimulus, whereas adding incongruent visual speech can alter the perception of the utterance. The latter phenomenon is the case of the McGurk illusion, where an auditory stimulus such as e.g. “ba” dubbed onto a visual stimulus such as “ga” produces the illusion of hearing “da”. Bayesian models of multisensory perception suggest that both the enhancement and the illusion case can be described as a two-step process of binding (informed by prior knowledge) and fusion (informed by the information reliability of each sensory cue). However, there is to date no study which has accounted for how they each contribute to audiovisual speech perception. In this study, we expose subjects to both congruent and incongruent audiovisual speech, manipulating the binding and the fusion stages simultaneously. This is done by varying both temporal offset (binding) and auditory and visual signal-to-noise ratio (fusion). We fit two Bayesian models to the behavioural data and show that they can both account for the enhancement effect in congruent audiovisual speech, as well as the McGurk illusion. This modelling approach allows us to disentangle the effects of binding and fusion on behavioural responses. Moreover, we find that these models have greater predictive power than a forced fusion model. This study provides a systematic and quantitative approach to measuring audiovisual integration in the perception of the McGurk illusion as well as congruent audiovisual speech, which we hope will inform future work on audiovisual speech perception.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0246986
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume16
Issue number2
Number of pages18
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Lindborg, Andersen. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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