Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

Sven Poul Nielsen, Maria Lüning, Erkki Ilus, Iisa Outola, Tarja Ikäheimonen, Jukka Mattila, Jürgen Herrmann, Günter Kanisch, Iolanda Osvath

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr in seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry
    PublisherWiley
    Publication date2011
    ISBN (Electronic)9781119951438
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

    Keywords

    • Baltic Sea
    • Anthropogenic radionuclides
    • Natural radionuclides
    • Seawater
    • Sediment
    • Biota
    • Inventories

    Cite this

    Nielsen, S. P., Lüning, M., Ilus, E., Outola, I., Ikäheimonen, T., Mattila, J., ... Osvath, I. (2011). Baltic Sea: Radionuclides. In Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119951438.eibc0447
    Nielsen, Sven Poul ; Lüning, Maria ; Ilus, Erkki ; Outola, Iisa ; Ikäheimonen, Tarja ; Mattila, Jukka ; Herrmann, Jürgen ; Kanisch, Günter ; Osvath, Iolanda. / Baltic Sea: Radionuclides. Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. Wiley, 2011.
    @inbook{f56f9fd275974a24a4ac9f99cc230cf3,
    title = "Baltic Sea: Radionuclides",
    abstract = "The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82{\%} and nuclear weapons test fallout about 14{\%}. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81{\%}, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13{\%}. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr in seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea.",
    keywords = "Baltic Sea, Anthropogenic radionuclides, Natural radionuclides, Seawater, Sediment, Biota, Inventories, Str{\aa}lingsforskning og nukleare teknologier, Radio{\o}kologi og sporstoffer",
    author = "Nielsen, {Sven Poul} and Maria L{\"u}ning and Erkki Ilus and Iisa Outola and Tarja Ik{\"a}heimonen and Jukka Mattila and J{\"u}rgen Herrmann and G{\"u}nter Kanisch and Iolanda Osvath",
    year = "2011",
    doi = "10.1002/9781119951438.eibc0447",
    language = "English",
    booktitle = "Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry",
    publisher = "Wiley",

    }

    Nielsen, SP, Lüning, M, Ilus, E, Outola, I, Ikäheimonen, T, Mattila, J, Herrmann, J, Kanisch, G & Osvath, I 2011, Baltic Sea: Radionuclides. in Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119951438.eibc0447

    Baltic Sea: Radionuclides. / Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda.

    Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. Wiley, 2011.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review

    TY - CHAP

    T1 - Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    AU - Nielsen, Sven Poul

    AU - Lüning, Maria

    AU - Ilus, Erkki

    AU - Outola, Iisa

    AU - Ikäheimonen, Tarja

    AU - Mattila, Jukka

    AU - Herrmann, Jürgen

    AU - Kanisch, Günter

    AU - Osvath, Iolanda

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr in seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea.

    AB - The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr in seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea.

    KW - Baltic Sea

    KW - Anthropogenic radionuclides

    KW - Natural radionuclides

    KW - Seawater

    KW - Sediment

    KW - Biota

    KW - Inventories

    KW - Strålingsforskning og nukleare teknologier

    KW - Radioøkologi og sporstoffer

    U2 - 10.1002/9781119951438.eibc0447

    DO - 10.1002/9781119951438.eibc0447

    M3 - Book chapter

    BT - Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

    PB - Wiley

    ER -

    Nielsen SP, Lüning M, Ilus E, Outola I, Ikäheimonen T, Mattila J et al. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides. In Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. Wiley. 2011 https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119951438.eibc0447