Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

Xavier Flores Alsina, Magnus Arnell, Youri Amerlinck, Lluis Corominas, Krist Gernaey, Lisha Guo, Erik Lindblom, Ingmar Nopens, Jose Porro, Andy Shaw, Laura Snip, Peter A. Vanrolleghem, Ulf Jeppsson

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Abstract

The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO2 emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N2O emissions, especially since N2O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO2. The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Original languageEnglish
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume466-467
Pages (from-to)616-624
ISSN0048-9697
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Benchmarking
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Clarification
  • Decision making
  • Global warming
  • Model structures
  • Process control
  • Sustainable development
  • Water quality
  • Greenhouse gases

Cite this

Flores Alsina, Xavier ; Arnell, Magnus ; Amerlinck, Youri ; Corominas, Lluis ; Gernaey, Krist ; Guo, Lisha ; Lindblom, Erik ; Nopens, Ingmar ; Porro, Jose ; Shaw, Andy ; Snip, Laura ; Vanrolleghem, Peter A. ; Jeppsson, Ulf. / Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2014 ; Vol. 466-467. pp. 616-624.
@article{67e863040dc946e785c89f98d74cab4f,
title = "Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs",
abstract = "The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO2 emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N2O emissions, especially since N2O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO2. The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. {\circledC} 2013 Elsevier B.V.",
keywords = "Benchmarking, Carbon dioxide, Clarification, Decision making, Global warming, Model structures, Process control, Sustainable development, Water quality, Greenhouse gases",
author = "{Flores Alsina}, Xavier and Magnus Arnell and Youri Amerlinck and Lluis Corominas and Krist Gernaey and Lisha Guo and Erik Lindblom and Ingmar Nopens and Jose Porro and Andy Shaw and Laura Snip and Vanrolleghem, {Peter A.} and Ulf Jeppsson",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.046",
language = "English",
volume = "466-467",
pages = "616--624",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier",

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Flores Alsina, X, Arnell, M, Amerlinck, Y, Corominas, L, Gernaey, K, Guo, L, Lindblom, E, Nopens, I, Porro, J, Shaw, A, Snip, L, Vanrolleghem, PA & Jeppsson, U 2014, 'Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 466-467, pp. 616-624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.046

Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs. / Flores Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri; Corominas, Lluis; Gernaey, Krist; Guo, Lisha; Lindblom, Erik; Nopens, Ingmar; Porro, Jose; Shaw, Andy; Snip, Laura; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Jeppsson, Ulf.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 466-467, 2014, p. 616-624.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

AU - Flores Alsina, Xavier

AU - Arnell, Magnus

AU - Amerlinck, Youri

AU - Corominas, Lluis

AU - Gernaey, Krist

AU - Guo, Lisha

AU - Lindblom, Erik

AU - Nopens, Ingmar

AU - Porro, Jose

AU - Shaw, Andy

AU - Snip, Laura

AU - Vanrolleghem, Peter A.

AU - Jeppsson, Ulf

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO2 emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N2O emissions, especially since N2O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO2. The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

AB - The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO2 emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N2O emissions, especially since N2O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO2. The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

KW - Benchmarking

KW - Carbon dioxide

KW - Clarification

KW - Decision making

KW - Global warming

KW - Model structures

KW - Process control

KW - Sustainable development

KW - Water quality

KW - Greenhouse gases

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.046

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.046

M3 - Journal article

VL - 466-467

SP - 616

EP - 624

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

ER -