Nanocatalysts synthesized by bacteria, mainly Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, are reviewed. Mechanisms of nanocatalyst biosynthesis by S. oneidensis MR-1, including intracellular and extracellular biosynthesis, are also discussed. We present characterization techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analyses. The biosynthesis process and information about a variety of resulting biogenic nanoparticle (NP) catalysts, particularly metallic and non-metallic NPs, alloys, and metallic and non-metallic sulfide NPs, are discussed further. Representative applications in electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, and biocatalysis are discussed, and opportunities and challenges of biogenic nanocatalysts are summarized.
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