Aviation Fuel Gauging Sensor Utilizing Multiple Diaphragm Sensors Incorporating Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Saez-Rodriguez, Kristian Nielsen, Ole Bang, D. J. Webb

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A high-performance fuel gauging sensor is described that uses five diaphragm-based pressure sensors, which are monitored using a linear array of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The sensors were initially characterized using water, revealing a sensitivity of 98 pm/cm for four of the sensors and 86 pm/cm for the fifth. The discrepancy in the sensitivity of the fifth sensor has been explained as being a result of the annealing of the other four sensors. Initial testing in JET A-1 aviation fuel revealed the unsuitability of silicone rubber diaphragms for prolonged usage in fuel. A second set of sensors manufactured with a polyurethane-based diaphragm showed no measurable deterioration over a three month period immersed in fuel. These sensors exhibited a sensitivity of 39 pm/cm, which is less than the silicone rubber devices due to the stiffer nature of the polyurethane material used.
Original languageEnglish
JournalI E E E Sensors Journal
Issue number15
Pages (from-to)6122-6129
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • CORE
  • Fiber Bragg gratings
  • polymer optical fiber sensors
  • pressure sensors
  • fuel level monitoring
  • aircraft applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Bragg gratings
  • Elastomers
  • Fibers
  • Fuels
  • Optical fibers
  • Plastic optical fibers
  • Polymers
  • Polyurethanes
  • Pressure sensors
  • Rubber
  • Rubber testing
  • Silicones
  • Aircraft applications
  • Aviation fuel
  • Fuel gauging
  • Fuel levels
  • Jet A-1
  • Linear arrays
  • Polyurethane materials
  • Silicone rubber
  • Diaphragms
  • silicone rubber
  • aircraft
  • diaphragms
  • fibre optic sensors
  • fuel
  • level measurement
  • pressure gauges
  • polyurethane-based diaphragm
  • aviation fuel gauging sensor
  • multiple diaphragm sensors
  • polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings
  • diaphragm-based pressure sensors
  • linear array
  • water
  • annealing
  • JET A-1 aviation fuel
  • silicone rubber diaphragms
  • Optical fiber sensors
  • Sensitivity
  • Liquids
  • Fibre optic sensors; fibre gyros
  • Pressure measurement
  • Gratings, echelles
  • Spatial variables measurement
  • Fibre optic sensors
  • Pressure and vacuum measurement
  • Level, flow and volume measurement
  • Measurement
  • Fuel processing industry
  • Aerospace industry


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