Autonomous Optimization of a Solidification Pattern and Its Effect on Porosity and Segregation in Steel Castings

Petr Kotas, Cem Celal Tutum, Jesper Henri Hattel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearch


The present paper considers optimization of a solidification pattern of a gravity sand-cast steel part. That is, the choice of proper riser and chill designs has been investigated using genetic algorithms while simultaneously considering their impact on centerline porosity and macrosegregation distribution. This was accomplished by coupling a casting simulation software package with an optimization module. The casting process of the original casting design was simulated using a transient 3D thermal model incorporated in a commercial simulation software package to determine potential flaws and inadequacies. After this initial assessment, a new geometrical model was suggested with the redesigned gating system and rearranged chills to obtain better filling and solidification patterns. Based on the improved model, relevant optimization targets and constraints were defined. One multi-objective optimization case with two conflicting objectives was considered in which minimization of the riser volume together with minimization of centerline porosity and elimination of macrosegregation issues were performed. Note: Copyrights belong to the AFS, therefore it is not allowed to be shared on the web.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAFS Proceedings
PublisherAmerican Foundry Society
Publication date2011
Publication statusPublished - 2011
EventAmerican Foundry Society - Schaumburg, IL USA
Duration: 1 Jan 2011 → …


ConferenceAmerican Foundry Society
CitySchaumburg, IL USA
Period01/01/2011 → …


  • Casting yield
  • Riser volume optimization
  • Macrosegregation
  • Steel casting
  • Centerline porosity
  • Casting process simulation
  • Genetic algorithms
  • Shrinkage porosity


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