Automatically generated smartphone data and subjective stress in healthy individuals - a pilot study

Maria Faurholt-Jepsen*, Helga Þórarinsdóttir, Maj Vinberg, Henrik Ullum, Mads Frost, Jakob Eyvind Bardram, Lars Vedel Kessing

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Most people will also experience symptoms of stress at some point. Smartphone use has increased during the last decade and may be a new way of monitoring stress. Thus, it is of interest to investigate whether automatically generated smartphone data reflecting smartphone use is associated with subjective stress in healthy individuals.Aims: to investigate whether automatically generated smartphone data (e.g. the number of outgoing sms/day) was associated with (1) smartphone-based subjectively reported perceived stress, (2) perceived stress (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)) (3) functioning (Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)) and (4) non-clinical depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-items (HDRS)).Methods: A cohort of 40 healthy blood donors used an app for daily self-assessment of stress for 16 weeks. At baseline participants filled out the PSS and were clinically evaluated using the FAST and the HDRS. The PSS assessment was repeated at the end of the study. Associations were estimated with linear mixed effect regression and linear regression models.Results: There were no statistically significant associations between automatically generated smartphone data and perceived stress, functioning or severity of depressive symptoms, respectively (e.g. the number of outgoing text messages/day and self-assessed stress (B = 0.30, 95% CI: -0.40; 0.99, p = .40).Conclusions: Participants presented with low levels of stress during the study. Automatically generated smartphone data was not able to catch potential subjective stress among healthy individuals in the present study. Due to the small sample and low levels of stress the results should be interpreted with caution.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNordic Journal of Psychiatry
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
ISSN1502-4725
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Stress
  • Smartphone
  • Healthy individuals

Cite this

Faurholt-Jepsen, M., Þórarinsdóttir, H., Vinberg, M., Ullum, H., Frost, M., Bardram, J. E., & Kessing, L. V. (Accepted/In press). Automatically generated smartphone data and subjective stress in healthy individuals - a pilot study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2019.1705904
Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria ; Þórarinsdóttir, Helga ; Vinberg, Maj ; Ullum, Henrik ; Frost, Mads ; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind ; Kessing, Lars Vedel. / Automatically generated smartphone data and subjective stress in healthy individuals - a pilot study. In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 2020 ; pp. 1-8.
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title = "Automatically generated smartphone data and subjective stress in healthy individuals - a pilot study",
abstract = "Background: Most people will also experience symptoms of stress at some point. Smartphone use has increased during the last decade and may be a new way of monitoring stress. Thus, it is of interest to investigate whether automatically generated smartphone data reflecting smartphone use is associated with subjective stress in healthy individuals.Aims: to investigate whether automatically generated smartphone data (e.g. the number of outgoing sms/day) was associated with (1) smartphone-based subjectively reported perceived stress, (2) perceived stress (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)) (3) functioning (Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)) and (4) non-clinical depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-items (HDRS)).Methods: A cohort of 40 healthy blood donors used an app for daily self-assessment of stress for 16 weeks. At baseline participants filled out the PSS and were clinically evaluated using the FAST and the HDRS. The PSS assessment was repeated at the end of the study. Associations were estimated with linear mixed effect regression and linear regression models.Results: There were no statistically significant associations between automatically generated smartphone data and perceived stress, functioning or severity of depressive symptoms, respectively (e.g. the number of outgoing text messages/day and self-assessed stress (B = 0.30, 95{\%} CI: -0.40; 0.99, p = .40).Conclusions: Participants presented with low levels of stress during the study. Automatically generated smartphone data was not able to catch potential subjective stress among healthy individuals in the present study. Due to the small sample and low levels of stress the results should be interpreted with caution.",
keywords = "Stress, Smartphone, Healthy individuals",
author = "Maria Faurholt-Jepsen and Helga {\TH}{\'o}rarinsd{\'o}ttir and Maj Vinberg and Henrik Ullum and Mads Frost and Bardram, {Jakob Eyvind} and Kessing, {Lars Vedel}",
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Automatically generated smartphone data and subjective stress in healthy individuals - a pilot study. / Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Vinberg, Maj; Ullum, Henrik; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Kessing, Lars Vedel.

In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 2020, p. 1-8.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Automatically generated smartphone data and subjective stress in healthy individuals - a pilot study

AU - Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

AU - Þórarinsdóttir, Helga

AU - Vinberg, Maj

AU - Ullum, Henrik

AU - Frost, Mads

AU - Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

AU - Kessing, Lars Vedel

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - Background: Most people will also experience symptoms of stress at some point. Smartphone use has increased during the last decade and may be a new way of monitoring stress. Thus, it is of interest to investigate whether automatically generated smartphone data reflecting smartphone use is associated with subjective stress in healthy individuals.Aims: to investigate whether automatically generated smartphone data (e.g. the number of outgoing sms/day) was associated with (1) smartphone-based subjectively reported perceived stress, (2) perceived stress (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)) (3) functioning (Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)) and (4) non-clinical depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-items (HDRS)).Methods: A cohort of 40 healthy blood donors used an app for daily self-assessment of stress for 16 weeks. At baseline participants filled out the PSS and were clinically evaluated using the FAST and the HDRS. The PSS assessment was repeated at the end of the study. Associations were estimated with linear mixed effect regression and linear regression models.Results: There were no statistically significant associations between automatically generated smartphone data and perceived stress, functioning or severity of depressive symptoms, respectively (e.g. the number of outgoing text messages/day and self-assessed stress (B = 0.30, 95% CI: -0.40; 0.99, p = .40).Conclusions: Participants presented with low levels of stress during the study. Automatically generated smartphone data was not able to catch potential subjective stress among healthy individuals in the present study. Due to the small sample and low levels of stress the results should be interpreted with caution.

AB - Background: Most people will also experience symptoms of stress at some point. Smartphone use has increased during the last decade and may be a new way of monitoring stress. Thus, it is of interest to investigate whether automatically generated smartphone data reflecting smartphone use is associated with subjective stress in healthy individuals.Aims: to investigate whether automatically generated smartphone data (e.g. the number of outgoing sms/day) was associated with (1) smartphone-based subjectively reported perceived stress, (2) perceived stress (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)) (3) functioning (Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)) and (4) non-clinical depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-items (HDRS)).Methods: A cohort of 40 healthy blood donors used an app for daily self-assessment of stress for 16 weeks. At baseline participants filled out the PSS and were clinically evaluated using the FAST and the HDRS. The PSS assessment was repeated at the end of the study. Associations were estimated with linear mixed effect regression and linear regression models.Results: There were no statistically significant associations between automatically generated smartphone data and perceived stress, functioning or severity of depressive symptoms, respectively (e.g. the number of outgoing text messages/day and self-assessed stress (B = 0.30, 95% CI: -0.40; 0.99, p = .40).Conclusions: Participants presented with low levels of stress during the study. Automatically generated smartphone data was not able to catch potential subjective stress among healthy individuals in the present study. Due to the small sample and low levels of stress the results should be interpreted with caution.

KW - Stress

KW - Smartphone

KW - Healthy individuals

U2 - 10.1080/08039488.2019.1705904

DO - 10.1080/08039488.2019.1705904

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 31880486

SP - 1

EP - 8

JO - Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

JF - Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

SN - 1502-4725

ER -