Assessing the Alignment Accuracy of State-of-the-Art Deterministic Fabrication Methods for Single Quantum Dot Devices

Abdulmalik A. Madigawa, Jan N. Donges, Benedek Gaál, Shulun Li, Martin Arentoft Jacobsen, Hanqing Liu, Deyan Dai, Xiangbin Su, Xiangjun Shang, Haiqiao Ni, Johannes Schall, Sven Rodt, Zhichuan Niu, Niels Gregersen, Stephan Reitzenstein*, Battulga Munkhbat*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The realization of efficient quantum light sources relies on the integration of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) into photonic nanostructures with a spectral alignment high spatial positioning accuracy. In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of the QD position accuracy, obtained using two marker-based QD positioning techniques, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, as well as using the marker-free in situ electron beam lithography (in situ EBL) technique. We employ four PL imaging configurations with three different image processing approaches and compare them with CL imaging. We fabricate circular mesa structures based on the obtained QD coordinates from both PL and CL image processing to evaluate the final positioning accuracy. This yields final position offset of the QD relative to the mesa center of μx = (−40 ± 58) nm and μy = (−39 ± 85) nm with PL imaging and μx = (−39 ± 30) nm and μy = (25 ± 77) nm with CL imaging, which are comparable to the offset μx = (20 ± 40) nm and μy = (−14 ± 39) nm obtained using the in situ EBL method. We discuss the possible causes of the observed offsets, which are significantly larger than the QD localization uncertainty obtained from simply imaging the QD light emission from an unstructured wafer. Our study highlights the influences of the image processing technique and the subsequent fabrication process on the final positioning accuracy for a QD placed inside a photonic nanostructure.

Original languageEnglish
JournalACS Photonics
Volume11
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)1012-1023
ISSN2330-4022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2024

Keywords

  • Cathodoluminescence
  • Deterministic fabrication
  • Photoluminescence
  • QD imaging
  • Quantum dots
  • Single-photon source

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