Artificial Promoters for Metabolic Optimization

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    In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms were constructed using synthetic degenerated oligonucleotides. From this work, a promoter library was obtained for Lactococcus lactis, containing numerous individual promoters and covering a wide range of promoter activities. Importantly, the range of promoter activities was covered in small steps of activity change. Promoter libraries generated by this approach allow for optimization of gene expression and for experimental control analysis in a wide range of biological systems by choosing from the promoter library promoters giving, e.g., 25%, 50%, 200%, and 400% of the normal expression level of the gene in question. If the relevant variable (e.g., the flux or yield) is then measured with each of these constructs, then one can calculate the control coefficient and determine the optimal expression level. One advantage of the method is that the construct which is found to have the optimal expression level is then, in principle, ready for use in the industrial fermentation process; another advantage is that the system can be used to optimize the expression of different enzymes within the same cell. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalBiotechnology and Bioengineering
    Issue number2-3
    Pages (from-to)191-195
    Publication statusPublished - 1998

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