Metal partitioning between solid and aqueous phases and speciation in soil pore water control the bioavailability of toxic forms of metals, while protons and base cations can mitigate metal ecotoxicity by competitive interactions with biotic ligands. e employment of BLMs to evaluate toxicity potential of metals in soils results in site-specic toxicity scores due to large variability of soil properties and dierences in ionic composition. Unfortunately, terrestrial BMLs are available only for few metals and few organisms, thus their applicability to hazard ranking or toxic impact assessment is low and alternatives must be found. In this study, we compared published terrestrial BLMs and their potential alternatives such as free ion activity models (FIAM), for applicability in addressing metal toxic impacts in terrestrial environments. A set of 1300 soils representative for the whole world is employed to calculate EC50 and thereafter hazardous concentration HC50 (geometric mean of all EC50) for these terrestrial organisms, for which both TBLMs and FIAMs are available. Results showed that median HC50 for all soils predicted with BLMs range 2 and 3 orders of magnitude for copper and nickel, respectively. In all cases, predictions of FIAMs fall within the range of values predicted with BLMs, and toxicity ratio of copper to nickel is accurately predicted with both models. us, both models are able to distinguish between the two metals in terms of their average toxicity. Given that the calculated toxicity scores show large variability even for soils located in close proximity to each other, selection of FIAMs is also justied in deriving soil quality criteria. It remains to be investigated at what spatial scale the FIAMs are a good alternative to TBLMs in evaluating metal toxic impacts in terrestrial environments.
|Number of pages||437|
|Publication status||Published - 2011|
|Event||Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry : Navigating Environmental Challenges: Historical Lessons Guiding Future Directions - Boston, United States|
Duration: 13 Nov 2011 → 17 Nov 2011
|Conference||Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry : Navigating Environmental Challenges: Historical Lessons Guiding Future Directions|
|Period||13/11/2011 → 17/11/2011|