Flow-based approaches were originally conceived for liquid-phase analysis, implying that constituents in solid samples generally had to be transferred into the liquid state, via appropriate batch pretreatment procedures, prior to analysis. Yet, in recent years, much effort has been focused on the design and characterisation of sample processings units coupled with flowing systems aiming to enable the direct introduction and treatment of solid samples of environmental and agricultural origin in an automated fashion . In this respect, various sample pre-treatment techniques including electrolytic or aqueous leaching, on-line dialysis/microdialysis, in-line filtration, and pervaporation-based procedures have been successfully implemented in continuous flow/flow injection systems. In this communication, the new generation of flow analysis, including sequential injection, multicommutated flow, multisyringe flow injection, and micro-Lab-on-valve are presented as appealing approaches for on-line handling of solid samples. Special emphasis is given to the capability of flow systems to accommodate sequential extraction protocols for partitioning of trace elements and nutrients in environmental solids (e.g., soils, sediments, sludges), and thus, ascertaining the potential mobility, bioavailability and eventual impact of anthropogenic elements on biota . In this context, the principles of sequential injection-microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) for dynamic fractionation are explained in detail along with the potential hyphenation with modern analytical instrumentation for automated monitoring of the content of targeted species in the on-line generated extracts [3,4].  Z.-L. Zhi, A. Ríos, M. Valcárcel, Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., 26 (1996) 239.  M. Miró, E.H. Hansen, R. Chomchoei, W. Frenzel, TRAC-Trends Anal. Chem., 24 (2005) 759.  R. Chomchoei, M. Miró, E.H. Hansen, J. Shiowatana, Anal. Chem., 77 (2005) 2720.  X.-B. Long, M. Miró, E.H. Hansen, Analyst, 131 (2006) 132.
|Publication status||Published - 2006|
|Event||10th International Conference on Flow Analysis: Flow Analysis X - Porto, Portugal|
Duration: 3 Sep 2006 → 8 Sep 2006
Conference number: 10
|Conference||10th International Conference on Flow Analysis|
|Period||03/09/2006 → 08/09/2006|