Lateral boundaries can have a large effect on the introduction of external large‐scale structures in limited area models. This case study of a mid‐latitude cyclone using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model examines challenges in simulating the storm intensity (characterised by sea level pressure, relative vorticity and wind speed) when a storm centre enters close to the lateral boundary corner in the outermost model domain. A domain shift, nudging techniques, adjustments of the WRF relaxation layer and the influence of boundary condition update frequency are investigated as possible solutions. The update frequency of the lateral boundary conditions is found to be the most efficient in improving the storm intensity, while adjustments to the relaxation layer or nudging techniques did not overcome the lack of insufficiently updated lateral boundary conditions. This suggests that the modelling of the storm intensification requires sufficiently high temporal resolution.
|Journal||Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2020|
- Limited area modelling
- Meso-scale modelling
- Lateral boundary conditions
- Mid-latitude cyclone