Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit–risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

Hans Verhagen, Rikke Andersen, Jean-Michel Antoine, Paul Finglas, Jeljer Hoekstra, Alwine Kardinaal, Hervé Nordmann, Gülden Pekcan, Kristina Pentieva, Tom A. Sandersi, Henk van den Berg, Henk van Kranen, Alessandro Chiodini

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The respective examples, described in this paper, illustrate how the BRAFO-tiered approach, on benefit–risk assessment, can be tested on a wide range of case studies. Various results were provided, ranging from a quick stop as the result of non-genuine benefit–risk questions to continuation through the tiers into deterministic/probabilistic calculations. The paper illustrates the assessment of benefits and risks associated with dietary interventions. The BRAFO tiered approach is tested with five case studies. In each instance, the benefit–risk approach is tested on the basis of existing evaluations for the individual effects done by others; no new risk or benefit evaluations were made. The following case studies were thoroughly analysed: an example of food fortification, folic acid fortification of flour, macronutrient replacement/food substitution; the isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids with carbohydrates; the replacement of saturated fatty acids with monounsaturated fatty acids; the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages containing mono- and disaccharides with low calorie sweeteners and an example of addition of specific ingredients to food: chlorination of drinking water.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Issue numberSuppl. 4
Pages (from-to)s710-s723
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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