In this paper, a first-order projection method is used to solve the Navier–Stokes equations numerically for a time-dependent incompressible fluid inside a three-dimensional (3-D) lid-driven cavity. The flow structure in a cavity of aspect ratio δ = 1 and Reynolds numbers (100, 400, 1000) is compared with existing results to validate the code. We then apply the developed code to flow of a generalised Newtonian fluid with the well-known Ostwald–de Waele power-law model. Results show that, by decreasing n (further deviation from Newtonian behaviour) from 1 to 0.9, the peak values of the velocity decrease while the centre of the main vortex moves towards the upper right corner of the cavity. However, for n = 0.5, the behaviour is reversed and the main vortex shifts back towards the centre of the cavity. We moreover demonstrate that, for the deeper cavities, δ = 2, 4, as the shear-thinning parameter n decreased the top-main vortex expands towards the bottom surface, and correspondingly the secondary flow becomes less pronounced in the plane perpendicular to the cavity lid.
Bibliographical noteCopyright 2019: by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
(CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
- Lid-driven cavity
- Projection method
- Aspect ratio
- Re numbers
Jabbari, M., McDonough, J., Mitsoulis, E., & Hattel, J. H. (2019). Application of a projection method for simulating flow of a shear-thinning fluid. Fluids , 4(3), . https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030124