APE: Authenticated Permutation-Based Encryption for Lightweight Cryptography

Elena Andreeva, Begül Bilgin, Andrey Bogdanov, Atul Luykx, Bart Mennink, Nicky Mouha, Kan Yasuda

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


The domain of lightweight cryptography focuses on cryptographic algorithms for extremely constrained devices. It is very costly to avoid nonce reuse in such environments, because this requires either a hardware source of randomness, or non-volatile memory to store a counter. At the same time, a lot of cryptographic schemes actually require the nonce assumption for their security. In this paper, we propose APE as the first permutation-based authenticated encryption scheme that is resistant against nonce misuse. We formally prove that APE is secure, based on the security of the underlying permutation. To decrypt, APE processes the ciphertext blocks in reverse order, and uses inverse permutation calls. APE therefore requires a permutation that is both efficient for forward and inverse calls. We instantiate APE with the permutations of three recent lightweight hash function designs: Quark, Photon, and Spongent. For any of these permutations, an implementation that supports both encryption and decryption requires less than 1.9 kGE and 2.8 kGE for 80-bit and 128-bit security levels, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRevised Selected Papers of the 21st International Workshop Fast Software Encryption (FSE 2014)
EditorsCarlos Cid, Christian Rechberger
Publication date2015
ISBN (Print)978-3-662-46705-3
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-662-46706-0
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event21st International Workshop Fast Software Encryption (FSE 2014) - London, United Kingdom
Duration: 3 Mar 20145 Mar 2014
Conference number: 21


Workshop21st International Workshop Fast Software Encryption (FSE 2014)
CountryUnited Kingdom
Internet address
SeriesLecture Notes in Computer Science


  • APE
  • Authenticated encryption
  • Sponge function
  • Online
  • Deterministic
  • Permutation-based
  • Misuse resistant

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