antiSMASH 4.0-improvements in chemistry prediction and gene cluster boundary identification

Kai Blin, Thomas Wolf, Marc G. Chevrette, Xiaowen Lu, Christopher J. Schwalen, Satria A. Kautsar, Hernando G. Suarez Duran, Emmanuel L. C. de Los Santos, Hyun Uk Kim, Mariana Nave, Jeroen S. Dickschat, Douglas A. Mitchell, Ekaterina Shelest, Rainer Breitling, Eriko Takano, Sang Yup Lee, Tilmann Weber, Marnix H. Medema

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

429 Downloads (Pure)


Many antibiotics, chemotherapeutics, crop protection agents and food preservatives originate from molecules produced by bacteria, fungi or plants. In recent years, genome mining methodologies have been widely adopted to identify and characterize the biosynthetic gene clusters encoding the production of such compounds. Since 2011, the 'antibiotics and secondary metabolite analysis shell-antiSMASH' has assisted researchers in efficiently performing this, both as a web server and a standalone tool. Here, we present the thoroughly updated antiSMASH version 4, which adds several novel features, including prediction of gene cluster boundaries using the ClusterFinder method or the newly integrated CASSIS algorithm, improved substrate specificity prediction for non-ribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation domains based on the new SANDPUMA algorithm, improved predictions for terpene and ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides cluster products, reporting of sequence similarity to proteins encoded in experimentally characterized gene clusters on a per-protein basis and a domain-level alignment tool for comparative analysis of trans-AT polyketide synthase assembly line architectures. Additionally, several usability features have been updated and improved. Together, these improvements make antiSMASH up-to-date with the latest developments in natural product research and will further facilitate computational genome mining for the discovery of novel bioactive molecules.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNucleic acids research
Pages (from-to)W36-W41
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which
permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'antiSMASH 4.0-improvements in chemistry prediction and gene cluster boundary identification'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this