Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4- diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid, but neither 5-5-diFA nor 8- 5-benzofuran-diFA inhibited LDL oxidation when added at 10-40 muM. The antioxidant activity of the monomeric hydroxycinnamates decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of rye extracts was significantly correlated with their total content of monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates, and the rye bran extract was the most potent. The data suggest that especially rye bran provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants that may have potential health effects.
Andreasen, M. F., Landbo, A-K. R., Christensen, L. P., Hansen, A., & Meyer, A. B. S. (2001). Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(8), 4090-4096. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0101758