Antioxidant content and activity of the seaweed Saccharina latissima: a seasonal perspective

Goncalo Silva Marinho*, Ann-Dorit Moltke Sørensen, Hamed Safafar, Anja H. Pedersen, Susan Løvstad Holdt

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Seaweeds have been receiving increasing attention as a promising natural source of antioxidants. The present study aimed at evaluating seasonal variations in the antioxidant content and activity of the sugar kelp, Saccharina latissima, cultivated at two sites in Denmark from May 2013 to May 2014. The extraction performance of two solvents, methanol and ethyl acetate, was compared, with methanol extracts resulting generally in higher total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), all determined spectrophotometrically. Phenolic compounds (phloroglucinol, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were evaluated by HPLC-DAD. TPC was higher in November and January (1.23–2.41 mg GAE g−1 DM) compared to that in September. Contrary, the highest TFC was found in September (4.56–4.83 mg RE g−1 DM; p ˂ 0.05). The pigment profile did not change seasonally, whereas fucoxanthin and chlorophyll a were the most abundant. Fucoxanthin concentration was lower in September compared to all other months (261–665 μg g−1 DM; p ˂ 0.05). TAC was significantly higher in November (3.84–4.05 mg GAE g−1 DM). Regarding the antioxidant activity (DPPH), there was no significant difference in the IC50 between seasons, although it was tendentiously lower in September and November (0.42–0.49 mg mL−1). Statistical analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between TPC and TAC; additionally, TPC and TFC contributed positively for the radical scavenging activity. There was no significant difference for all the analyzed variables between cultivation sites. This study reveals marked seasonal variations, and high biological variability (difference among replicates) in the antioxidant content of S. latissima, and substantially lower antioxidant capacity compared to other species such as Fucus sp., which needs to be taken into account when considering seaweed as a commercial source of antioxidants.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Applied Phycology
Volume31
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)1343–1354
ISSN0921-8971
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • DPPH
  • Flavonoids
  • HPLC
  • Phaeophyta
  • Polyphenols
  • Sugar kelp
  • TPC

Cite this

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title = "Antioxidant content and activity of the seaweed Saccharina latissima: a seasonal perspective",
abstract = "Seaweeds have been receiving increasing attention as a promising natural source of antioxidants. The present study aimed at evaluating seasonal variations in the antioxidant content and activity of the sugar kelp, Saccharina latissima, cultivated at two sites in Denmark from May 2013 to May 2014. The extraction performance of two solvents, methanol and ethyl acetate, was compared, with methanol extracts resulting generally in higher total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), all determined spectrophotometrically. Phenolic compounds (phloroglucinol, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were evaluated by HPLC-DAD. TPC was higher in November and January (1.23–2.41 mg GAE g−1 DM) compared to that in September. Contrary, the highest TFC was found in September (4.56–4.83 mg RE g−1 DM; p ˂ 0.05). The pigment profile did not change seasonally, whereas fucoxanthin and chlorophyll a were the most abundant. Fucoxanthin concentration was lower in September compared to all other months (261–665 μg g−1 DM; p ˂ 0.05). TAC was significantly higher in November (3.84–4.05 mg GAE g−1 DM). Regarding the antioxidant activity (DPPH), there was no significant difference in the IC50 between seasons, although it was tendentiously lower in September and November (0.42–0.49 mg mL−1). Statistical analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between TPC and TAC; additionally, TPC and TFC contributed positively for the radical scavenging activity. There was no significant difference for all the analyzed variables between cultivation sites. This study reveals marked seasonal variations, and high biological variability (difference among replicates) in the antioxidant content of S. latissima, and substantially lower antioxidant capacity compared to other species such as Fucus sp., which needs to be taken into account when considering seaweed as a commercial source of antioxidants.",
keywords = "DPPH, Flavonoids, HPLC, Phaeophyta, Polyphenols, Sugar kelp, TPC",
author = "Marinho, {Goncalo Silva} and S{\o}rensen, {Ann-Dorit Moltke} and Hamed Safafar and Pedersen, {Anja H.} and {L{\o}vstad Holdt}, Susan",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1007/s10811-018-1650-8",
language = "English",
volume = "31",
pages = "1343–1354",
journal = "Journal of Applied Phycology",
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Antioxidant content and activity of the seaweed Saccharina latissima: a seasonal perspective. / Marinho, Goncalo Silva; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Safafar, Hamed; Pedersen, Anja H.; Løvstad Holdt, Susan .

In: Journal of Applied Phycology, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2019, p. 1343–1354.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Antioxidant content and activity of the seaweed Saccharina latissima: a seasonal perspective

AU - Marinho, Goncalo Silva

AU - Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

AU - Safafar, Hamed

AU - Pedersen, Anja H.

AU - Løvstad Holdt, Susan

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Seaweeds have been receiving increasing attention as a promising natural source of antioxidants. The present study aimed at evaluating seasonal variations in the antioxidant content and activity of the sugar kelp, Saccharina latissima, cultivated at two sites in Denmark from May 2013 to May 2014. The extraction performance of two solvents, methanol and ethyl acetate, was compared, with methanol extracts resulting generally in higher total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), all determined spectrophotometrically. Phenolic compounds (phloroglucinol, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were evaluated by HPLC-DAD. TPC was higher in November and January (1.23–2.41 mg GAE g−1 DM) compared to that in September. Contrary, the highest TFC was found in September (4.56–4.83 mg RE g−1 DM; p ˂ 0.05). The pigment profile did not change seasonally, whereas fucoxanthin and chlorophyll a were the most abundant. Fucoxanthin concentration was lower in September compared to all other months (261–665 μg g−1 DM; p ˂ 0.05). TAC was significantly higher in November (3.84–4.05 mg GAE g−1 DM). Regarding the antioxidant activity (DPPH), there was no significant difference in the IC50 between seasons, although it was tendentiously lower in September and November (0.42–0.49 mg mL−1). Statistical analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between TPC and TAC; additionally, TPC and TFC contributed positively for the radical scavenging activity. There was no significant difference for all the analyzed variables between cultivation sites. This study reveals marked seasonal variations, and high biological variability (difference among replicates) in the antioxidant content of S. latissima, and substantially lower antioxidant capacity compared to other species such as Fucus sp., which needs to be taken into account when considering seaweed as a commercial source of antioxidants.

AB - Seaweeds have been receiving increasing attention as a promising natural source of antioxidants. The present study aimed at evaluating seasonal variations in the antioxidant content and activity of the sugar kelp, Saccharina latissima, cultivated at two sites in Denmark from May 2013 to May 2014. The extraction performance of two solvents, methanol and ethyl acetate, was compared, with methanol extracts resulting generally in higher total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), all determined spectrophotometrically. Phenolic compounds (phloroglucinol, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were evaluated by HPLC-DAD. TPC was higher in November and January (1.23–2.41 mg GAE g−1 DM) compared to that in September. Contrary, the highest TFC was found in September (4.56–4.83 mg RE g−1 DM; p ˂ 0.05). The pigment profile did not change seasonally, whereas fucoxanthin and chlorophyll a were the most abundant. Fucoxanthin concentration was lower in September compared to all other months (261–665 μg g−1 DM; p ˂ 0.05). TAC was significantly higher in November (3.84–4.05 mg GAE g−1 DM). Regarding the antioxidant activity (DPPH), there was no significant difference in the IC50 between seasons, although it was tendentiously lower in September and November (0.42–0.49 mg mL−1). Statistical analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between TPC and TAC; additionally, TPC and TFC contributed positively for the radical scavenging activity. There was no significant difference for all the analyzed variables between cultivation sites. This study reveals marked seasonal variations, and high biological variability (difference among replicates) in the antioxidant content of S. latissima, and substantially lower antioxidant capacity compared to other species such as Fucus sp., which needs to be taken into account when considering seaweed as a commercial source of antioxidants.

KW - DPPH

KW - Flavonoids

KW - HPLC

KW - Phaeophyta

KW - Polyphenols

KW - Sugar kelp

KW - TPC

U2 - 10.1007/s10811-018-1650-8

DO - 10.1007/s10811-018-1650-8

M3 - Journal article

VL - 31

SP - 1343

EP - 1354

JO - Journal of Applied Phycology

JF - Journal of Applied Phycology

SN - 0921-8971

IS - 2

ER -