Antidiabetic xanthones with α-glucosidase inhibitory activities from an endophytic Penicillium canescens

Abd. Malik, Hamidreza Ardalani, Syariful Anam, Laura Mikél McNair, Kresten J.K. Kromphardt, Rasmus John Normand Frandsen, Henrik Franzyk, Dan Staerk, Kenneth T. Kongstad*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Worldwide, 463 million people are affected by diabetes of which the majority is diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). T2D can ultimately lead to retinopathy, nephropathy, nerve damage, and amputation of the lower extremities. α-Glucosidase, responsible for converting starch to monosaccharides, is a key therapeutic target for the management of T2D. However, due to substantial side effects of currently marketed drugs, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new α-glucosidase inhibitors. In our ongoing efforts to identify novel α-glucosidase inhibitors from Nature, we are investigating the potential of endophytic filamentous fungi as sustainable sources of hits and/or leads for future antihyperglycemic drugs. Here we report one previously unreported xanthone (5) and two known xanthones (7 and 11) as α-glucosidase inhibitors, isolated from an endophytic Penicillium canescens, recovered from fruits of Juniperus polycarpos. The three xanthones 5, 7, and 11 showed inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 38.80 ± 1.01 μM, 32.32 ± 1.01 μM, and 75.20 ± 1.02 μM, respectively. Further pharmacological characterization revealed a mixed-mode inhibition for 5, a competitive inhibition for 7, while 11 acted as a non-competitive inhibitor.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104522
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Endophytic fungi
  • Penicillium canescens
  • α-glucosidase inhibitors
  • Xanthone
  • Competitive inhibition

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