Antibody Cross-Reactivity in Antivenom Research

Line Ledsgaard, Timothy P Jenkins, Kristian Davidsen, Kamille Elvstrøm Krause, Andrea Martos-Esteban, Mikael Engmark, Mikael Rørdam Andersen, Ole Lund, Andreas Hougaard Laustsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Antivenom cross-reactivity has been investigated for decades to determine which antivenoms can be used to treat snakebite envenomings from different snake species. Traditionally, the methods used for analyzing cross-reactivity have been immunodiffusion, immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), enzymatic assays, and in vivo neutralization studies. In recent years, new methods for determination of cross-reactivity have emerged, including surface plasmon resonance, antivenomics, and high-density peptide microarray technology. Antivenomics involves a top-down assessment of the toxin-binding capacities of antivenoms, whereas high-density peptide microarray technology may be harnessed to provide in-depth knowledge on which toxin epitopes are recognized by antivenoms. This review provides an overview of both the classical and new methods used to investigate antivenom cross-reactivity, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and examples of studies using the methods. A special focus is given to antivenomics and high-density peptide microarray technology as these high-throughput methods have recently been introduced in this field and may enable more detailed assessments of antivenom cross-reactivity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number393
Issue number10
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


  • Antivenom
  • Cross-reactivity
  • Cross-neutralization
  • High-density peptide microarray technology
  • Antivenomics
  • Snakebite envenoming
  • Venom
  • Toxins


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