Antibiotic resistant enterococci—Tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker

Guido Werner, Teresa M. Coque, Charles M.A.P. Franz, Elisabeth Grohmann, Kristin Hegstad, Lars Bogø Jensen, Willem van Schaik, Keith Weaver

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Abstract

Enterococci have been recognized as important hospital-acquired pathogens in recent years, and isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are the third- to fourth-most prevalent nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Acquired resistances, especially against penicilin/ampicillin, aminoglycosides (high-level) and glycopeptides are therapeutically important and reported in increasing numbers. On the other hand, isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are commensals of the intestines of humans, many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and may also constitute an active part of the plant flora. Certain enterococcal isolates are used as starter cultures or supplements in food fermentation and food preservation. Due to their preferred intestinal habitat, their wide occurrence, robustness and ease of cultivation, enterococci are used as indicators for fecal pollution assessing hygiene standards for fresh- and bathing water and they serve as important key indicator bacteria for various veterinary and human resistance surveillance systems. Enterococci are widely prevalent and genetically capable of acquiring, conserving and disseminating genetic traits including resistance determinants among enterococci and related Gram-positive bacteria. In the present review we aimed at summarizing recent advances in the current understanding of the population biology of enterococci, the role mobile genetic elements including plasmids play in shaping the population structure and spreading resistance. We explain how these elements could be classified and discuss mechanisms of plasmid transfer and regulation and the role and cross-talk of enterococcal isolates from food and food animals to humans.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Microbiology
Volume303
Issue number6-7
Pages (from-to)360-379
ISSN1438-4221
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Keywords

  • Enterococci
  • Population biology
  • Mobile genetic elements
  • Antibiotic resistance

Cite this

Werner, Guido ; Coque, Teresa M. ; Franz, Charles M.A.P. ; Grohmann, Elisabeth ; Hegstad, Kristin ; Jensen, Lars Bogø ; van Schaik, Willem ; Weaver, Keith. / Antibiotic resistant enterococci—Tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker. In: International Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2013 ; Vol. 303, No. 6-7. pp. 360-379.
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abstract = "Enterococci have been recognized as important hospital-acquired pathogens in recent years, and isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are the third- to fourth-most prevalent nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Acquired resistances, especially against penicilin/ampicillin, aminoglycosides (high-level) and glycopeptides are therapeutically important and reported in increasing numbers. On the other hand, isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are commensals of the intestines of humans, many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and may also constitute an active part of the plant flora. Certain enterococcal isolates are used as starter cultures or supplements in food fermentation and food preservation. Due to their preferred intestinal habitat, their wide occurrence, robustness and ease of cultivation, enterococci are used as indicators for fecal pollution assessing hygiene standards for fresh- and bathing water and they serve as important key indicator bacteria for various veterinary and human resistance surveillance systems. Enterococci are widely prevalent and genetically capable of acquiring, conserving and disseminating genetic traits including resistance determinants among enterococci and related Gram-positive bacteria. In the present review we aimed at summarizing recent advances in the current understanding of the population biology of enterococci, the role mobile genetic elements including plasmids play in shaping the population structure and spreading resistance. We explain how these elements could be classified and discuss mechanisms of plasmid transfer and regulation and the role and cross-talk of enterococcal isolates from food and food animals to humans.",
keywords = "Enterococci, Population biology, Mobile genetic elements, Antibiotic resistance",
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Werner, G, Coque, TM, Franz, CMAP, Grohmann, E, Hegstad, K, Jensen, LB, van Schaik, W & Weaver, K 2013, 'Antibiotic resistant enterococci—Tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker', International Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 303, no. 6-7, pp. 360-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2013.03.001

Antibiotic resistant enterococci—Tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker. / Werner, Guido; Coque, Teresa M.; Franz, Charles M.A.P.; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Hegstad, Kristin; Jensen, Lars Bogø; van Schaik, Willem; Weaver, Keith.

In: International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 303, No. 6-7, 2013, p. 360-379.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Antibiotic resistant enterococci—Tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker

AU - Werner, Guido

AU - Coque, Teresa M.

AU - Franz, Charles M.A.P.

AU - Grohmann, Elisabeth

AU - Hegstad, Kristin

AU - Jensen, Lars Bogø

AU - van Schaik, Willem

AU - Weaver, Keith

PY - 2013

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N2 - Enterococci have been recognized as important hospital-acquired pathogens in recent years, and isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are the third- to fourth-most prevalent nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Acquired resistances, especially against penicilin/ampicillin, aminoglycosides (high-level) and glycopeptides are therapeutically important and reported in increasing numbers. On the other hand, isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are commensals of the intestines of humans, many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and may also constitute an active part of the plant flora. Certain enterococcal isolates are used as starter cultures or supplements in food fermentation and food preservation. Due to their preferred intestinal habitat, their wide occurrence, robustness and ease of cultivation, enterococci are used as indicators for fecal pollution assessing hygiene standards for fresh- and bathing water and they serve as important key indicator bacteria for various veterinary and human resistance surveillance systems. Enterococci are widely prevalent and genetically capable of acquiring, conserving and disseminating genetic traits including resistance determinants among enterococci and related Gram-positive bacteria. In the present review we aimed at summarizing recent advances in the current understanding of the population biology of enterococci, the role mobile genetic elements including plasmids play in shaping the population structure and spreading resistance. We explain how these elements could be classified and discuss mechanisms of plasmid transfer and regulation and the role and cross-talk of enterococcal isolates from food and food animals to humans.

AB - Enterococci have been recognized as important hospital-acquired pathogens in recent years, and isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are the third- to fourth-most prevalent nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Acquired resistances, especially against penicilin/ampicillin, aminoglycosides (high-level) and glycopeptides are therapeutically important and reported in increasing numbers. On the other hand, isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are commensals of the intestines of humans, many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and may also constitute an active part of the plant flora. Certain enterococcal isolates are used as starter cultures or supplements in food fermentation and food preservation. Due to their preferred intestinal habitat, their wide occurrence, robustness and ease of cultivation, enterococci are used as indicators for fecal pollution assessing hygiene standards for fresh- and bathing water and they serve as important key indicator bacteria for various veterinary and human resistance surveillance systems. Enterococci are widely prevalent and genetically capable of acquiring, conserving and disseminating genetic traits including resistance determinants among enterococci and related Gram-positive bacteria. In the present review we aimed at summarizing recent advances in the current understanding of the population biology of enterococci, the role mobile genetic elements including plasmids play in shaping the population structure and spreading resistance. We explain how these elements could be classified and discuss mechanisms of plasmid transfer and regulation and the role and cross-talk of enterococcal isolates from food and food animals to humans.

KW - Enterococci

KW - Population biology

KW - Mobile genetic elements

KW - Antibiotic resistance

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijmm.2013.03.001

DO - 10.1016/j.ijmm.2013.03.001

M3 - Journal article

VL - 303

SP - 360

EP - 379

JO - International Journal of Medical Microbiology

JF - International Journal of Medical Microbiology

SN - 1438-4221

IS - 6-7

ER -